Emerson repeats “Trust thyself” throughout the selection. This motto ties the first section of the essay together. To rely on someone else’s opinion or judgment is cowardly, but someone who is self-reliant exhibits originality and is child-like – free from selfish needs – yet mature. Emerson also said it is important for an individual to resist the pressure to conform to societal norms, which conspire to defeat self-reliance in its people. “Whoso would be a man, must be a nonconformist .
The Enchiridion is a practical philosophical aid teaching the reader the best way to live. Philosophy, Epictetus taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. One is urged to revel in in the habits of control, humility, and different nuances of wisdom. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and objectively. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline.
Aeschylus, through Athena, offers a compromise between two opposing radical ideas, balancing the neutrality of logic and sentiment within the individual, to strengthen unity of a society, and to stimulate the transcendance of humanity. The Eumenides begins with the feud between two opposing principles, blinded by their
Although Ayn Rand constructs persuasive points for the ethics of emergencies, the central principle of morality that states to follow one’s own ranking of values is flawed and therefore his argument for emergencies must be rejected. Rand considers objectivism to be the truth because even though it can be hard to justify that selfishness could be morally right, she supports her stance by stating it is every person’s responsibility to care for their own life. If people do not care for their own life, and lets their lives fall into chaos, then it is nobody’s fault but their own, and no one is morally obligated to feel bad for them. Rand then attempts to explain the main issue of explaining how to deal with circumstances where certainly any
Objectivism in Ayn Rand’s Anthem Ayn Rand established her philosophy of objectivism in order to eliminate the traditions she experienced while she was growing up under collective governments, and to emphasize the importance of the individual over the collective group. It can be defined as a philosophy for living stating that man himself is the greatest power, and man must decide what is best for himself based on reason. The four basic tenets of objectivism are reality exists as an objective absolute, reason is man’s only method of interpreting his surroundings, man must exist as an individual in order to pursue his own interests, with the ultimate goal being happiness, and the economy of an objectivist society should be laissez-faire capitalism,
“The test of a first rate of intelligence is to have two opposed ideas at the same time and still retain the ability to function,” as claimed by Fitzgerald, the author of The Great Gatsby. Being the opposite of each other, certainty is to be absolute in one idea or belief, while doubt is to be uncertain. As history shows, it is preferable to coexist with these two opposed ideas since certainty gives one confidence, and doubt gives the contemporary laws, structure, or society a chance to improve. Certainty produces confidence, which encourages the minority to insist its ideas under the pressure from the majority. Inspired by his certainty of the wrongness of the Roman Catholic Church, Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the gate of the Wittenberg
Semi-compatibilism allows us to confidently attribute moral responsibility even if we are unsure about determinism. This sets Fischer aside from most philosophers of his time because they were all very interested in how free will and determinism are related (compatible) while Fischer glosses over the aspect of free will and states that moral responsibility and determinism are compatible regardless. Guidance control is comprised of two elements, the first being that one has to be a morally responsible agent whose actions must be the agents own, and secondly the crucial capacities used by a morally responsible agent are capacities for recognizing and responding to reasons for
Utilitarian is a regularizing moral hypothesis that place the locus of good and bad exclusively on the result, the end legitimize the mean. Solving and taking care of the issue is most important. All matters is just the final products if the final products is great then what you did was ethically right. Considering things are at stake for both stakeholder involved. Utilitarian principles sates that proper course action maximize happiness and treat other how you would wanted to be treated.
“He who thinks and thinks for himself, will always have a claim to thanks, it is no matter whether it be right or wrong, so as it be right or wrong, so as it be explicit. If it is right, it will serve as a guide to direct, if wrong, as a beacon to warn.” Jeremy Bentham believed that each individual should be able to speak their own opinions whether they were right or wrong as long as they didn’t harm anyone. Bentham was a British philosopher, who was believed to be the founder of utilitarianism. Utilitarianism is based on the principle of having ethics towards the morally right action, which would benefit everyone’s life and well-being. Bentham’s utilitarianism influenced a particular son and father, James and John Mill.
This is seen as the primary tenet of political or religious fundamentalism. Isolation breeds intolerance of different cultures and dissenting ideas. Ayn Rand developed ethical objectivism. “ An objectivist is person who follows certain moral guidelines such as not taking what he/she does not deserve, developing a sense of self sustainability, and respecting the rights of other human beings. Ultimately, the objectivist achieves true happiness through his or her works, attitudes and behaviors” (YourDictionary, n.d., para.