Regardless of the type of operating system, all computer operating systems performs the following main tasks: Process Management Memory Management File System Management Device Management Process management Process is defined as an instant of a computer program that is being executed or in other words a program in execution. Application software being executed by user or a printing task carried out by the system are considered as processes. Below is the image of processes running on windows operating system: All processes go through 5 states described as: Initiation – the creation stage of the process. Ready – the stage where all the necessary resources required to execute the process are available and waiting for the CPU to start
It is also known as processor. It is considered as a brain of the computer. It processor (or manipulates) input data according to the given instructions, and convert it into useful information. It is further divided in to two main components: 1. CU: CU stands for “Control Unit”.
The system resides on a collection of disks, hence disk management must be provided. Also time sharing systems provides a mechanism for protecting resources from inappropriate use. Process Management and OS manages many kinds of activities: ● User programs ● System programs: printer spoolers,name servers, file servers, etc. and Each is encapsulated in a process ● A process includes the complete execution context (code, data, PC,registers, OS resources in use, etc.) ● A process is not a program and A process is
The very high end systems of this range are used for graphics-intensive work. c) Mainframes - A large computer system which is used by a lot of users at the same time, like the central system of a corporate office. These computers have multiple processors and very different architecture from ordinary PCs to serve a number of users at the same time. Processing power is very much greater than PCs. d) Supercomputers - The fastest computers available at a particular period of time are generally the supercomputers.
The Word 'Computer' usually denotes to the Center Processor Unit plus Internal memory. A computer is a device that receives information (in the form of digitalized data) and influences it for some result based on a program or sequence of commands on how the data is to be processed. Complex computers also include the means for storing
Kernel structure – A layered approach and Booting process Windows OS: 1143000296545 This picture is the overall view of “Windows Architecture” The architecture of windows is a layered design that consists of 2 main layers, that is, user mode and kernel mode. Here we are gonna speak about KERNEL MODE. Kernel mode has full access to the hardware and system resources to the computer that runs code in the protected memory area. It controls access to scheduling, thread priorization, memory management and the interaction with hardware. The Kernel mode stops the user mode services
Initially computer systems were used for accounting and finance related activities. Few decades earlier, Information Technology is applied to assist the production, through on-line management of the activities at the plant floor by help of computers. The approach of using computers to control the production process is named as Computer Integrated Manufacturing and its main aim is to manage the exchange of information faster. CIM can be used in any manufacturing industry to perform various activities throughout the enterprise. There are many subsystems of Computer Integrated Manufacturing which help in integration of the manufacturing process from ideation to application.
A CPU contains three primary sections: the register section, consisting of the registers in the CPU’s Instruction Set Architecture as well as other registers not directly available to the programmer, the ALU, and the control unit. The micro-operations in its Register transfer language (RTL)code specify the functions to be performed by the register section and the ALU. These micro-operations are always used to design the data paths within the register section , including direct connections and buses, and the functions of each of the register. The micro-operations also specify the functions of the ALU. Since the ALU must perform all of its computations in a single clock cycle , it is constructed using combinatorial logic.
Chaptar-1 1. What is a Computer? Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations. The basic components of a modern digital computer are: Input Device, Output Device, and Central Processor.
Software also acts as basic interface or layer between physical database and the system user. This includes DBMS software, Operating Systems (OS), applications programs and DBMS utilities software. C. People (Users) The types of users that have access and can retrieve data from databases using application software and interfaces provided by DBMS. This includes System Administrators who oversee database systems general operations, Database administrators that manages and ensure DBMS is working. Database designers design database diagram, System analysts and programmers design and implement the application program and lastly End users who use application program for organization`s using.