Rainwater Harvesting System performance is strongly influenced by rainfall, water demand, and the storage tank capacity. The main objective of this study is to find the correlation between rainfall, water demand, and the storage tank capacity. Correlation is expressed by a non-dimensional parameter which is represented by the curves and equations based on tank capacity
Ayoko et al. (2007) observed that usually communities that depend on untreated groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes are communities that lack adequate infrastructures to monitor water quality regularly and implement control strategies due to poverty. Chenini I and Khemiri S. (2009) noticed that the chemical composition of groundwater is controlled by many factors that include the composition of precipitation, mineralogy of the aquifers, climate, and topography. They concluded that the effect of the combination of these factors can create diverse water types that change in composition spatially and temporally. It is important to mention here that the interaction between groundwater and the host rock is affected by some physical parameters such as temperature, pH, etc.
DISSERTATION TITLE "Patterns of Behaviour around Urban Water Landscapes" Tanvi Nakra 14000126 Studio 4-A 1.1 INTRODUCTION Water is referenced in different ways by many disciplines including design, planning, ecology, geology, anthropology, psychology, sociology, mythology, religion, art, literature and history. It is the most important life sustaining element after air. It has always been a highly preferred element in landscape design due to its unique ability to be moulded, sculpted and re-channelled. However, water features are generally placed in the landscape simply to fill an empty space with no forethought as to the meaning or value people place on water. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discover why and how people and water
37 The Simple Linear Model (SLM) The SLM assumes a linear equation describes the conversion of total precipitation and total flow. The model was simply developed for the comparisons of models. When the precipitation and flow are in the same unit, the total of the discrete pulse response ordinates explains the gain factor G of the model as follows: G = ∑_(i=1)^m▒h_i^' .............................................................................3.47 Here, the gain factor (G) is the runoff coefficient and therefore defines the ratio of the total volume of the observed flow to that of the observed precipitation (Shamseldin et al, 1997). The conversion of rainfall to runoff is hardly linear. 38 The MODHYDROLOG Model MODHYDROLOG is a conceptual
These methods reinforced the understanding of the Archimedes’ principle. This principle describes the weight of an object in a fluid equal to the volume of fluid displaced by the object. These methods were effective in producing related values of buoyant force and density. The density of tap water was calculated using the metal cylinders and the vernier caliper. This value was compared to the actual density of water and produced a 1.8 %
The said activities reduce the water infiltration into the ground surface hence producing surface runoffs that flow into channels and streams which may carry contaminants that might pollute the surface water. In addition to the increasing of impermeability, removal of soil and vegetation, and grading the land surface escalate the amount of runoff volumes (Novak, Giesen, & DeBusk, 2014). As a watershed is developed and urbanized, a large amount of the vegetation is being replaced by impermeable surfaces, thus reducing the zone where intrusion to groundwater can occur. In result to this, more stormwater runoff is being produced – runoff that necessarily be collected by extensive drainage system (USGS,
Introduction This paper describes the potential effects of drought and the responses of the aquatic biota to the drought situations. The focus of the paper will be principally on the response of the invertebrates and fishes to seasonal and supra-seasonal droughts. As said by Bradshaw & Holzapfel (1988), Corti, Kohler & Sparks (1988), and Webster et al. (1996) the situation remains the same for stagnant waters, floodplain ponds, and lakes respectively. The drought have impact on both human and also on the aquatic ecosystems.
Silt concentration in the sediments were observed more during monsoon due to riverine input and heavy rainfall (Padma and Periakali, 1999) from previous season made top course soil to erode and settlement of fine silt and clayey loam texture. Silty loam and loamy texture in Northern part is due to the trapped seagrass and seaweeds. The deposition of clay sediments are predominantly by flocculated as a consequence of a saline and fresh water interface (Cavallotto, 1995), under the low energy and shallow water conditions. The clays are brown to black in color. Therefore, the lower reach (source point, Northern lake) of river with more of clay and silt whereas upper reaches (draining point, Southern lake) noticed to be sand however during monsoon,
Proposed Research Work Goal: To assess birds and macro invertebrate assemblage in the coastal wetlands of Gulf of Kachchh to develop correlation model for rapid monitoring of wetlands Background information: Based on discoveries of our satellites, it appears that water is a unique substance in our discovered universe. Wetlands are areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas (Cowardin, 1979). Wetlands are extremely important throughout the world for several reasons such
2003; Turner and Rabalais 2004). River transport of particulates, nutrients and minerals plays a major role in maintaining the productivity of the coastal and the nearshore environments. Thus, rivers and their estuaries provide connectivity between terrestrial and marine environments and also act as corridors for free movement of aquatic organisms among various sub-environments. But unfortunately, extensive urbanisation and industrialisation consequent to the economic development in recent years have caused a worldwide increase in river input of geochemical constituents, especially nutrient