Concentric Circle Theory

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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTUAL AND MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR SOIL- WATER CONSERVATION IN AN EPHEMERAL STREAM
INTRODUCTION
Hydrological cycle touches every living organism’s in day today life but its survival to human exploitations have brought the cycle in endangered phenomena. The factors contribute in reduction of surface water availability, infiltration rates; Apart from this population growth, water marketing and agricultural growth also increased the water demand which in turn also increased the groundwater exploitation. Because of this, non-equilibrium of inflow and outflow components in water storage has brought water scarcity. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) is new approaches involves applying knowledge from various disciplines
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Each zone in tank system is distinguished in to fixed number of horizontal and vertical components. These layers are interconnected with the application of traditional methods nullah tank and beris or kuis tank. The main objective is to increase surface water storage, groundwater storage and recharge when the water is in the course of flow without distributing the flow.
The basic relations describing kinetics of flow and governing equations of flow in the unsaturated zone are presented in a general form considering unsteady multidimensional anisotropic and non-homogeneous flow in the presence of sink and sources. Since Buckingham (1907) introduced the energy concept to describe the condition of water and Richards (1931) formulated the partial differential equation for water flow in unsaturated soil, a quantitative analysis came within reach. Soil water flow, however, is highly nonlinear, as both the hydraulic conductivity and the soil water pressure head depend on the soil water content. Exact analytical solutions are only possible for simplified flow cases under a number of restrictive
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The partial differential flow equation can be interpreted numerically by a finite difference, a finite element or a boundary element technique. Then a discretization scheme is applied for a system of nodal points that is superimposed on the soil depth-time region. Implementing the appropriate initial and boundary conditions then leads to a set of algebraic equations that can be solved by different methods. The operation by means of such a mathematical model is termed simulation, while the model is called simulation model. The output of a simulation model can include such variables as pressure head, moisture content and flux as a function of soil depth and time. However, most frequently one calculates the terms of the water balance, i.e. infiltration, actual evaporation, actual transpiration, change in soil water storage, consumption pattern and the net flux through the region boundary. Basic features of soil and rock relevant to flow in the unsaturated zone include texture, structure, and the content of mineral and non mineral constituents. Texture, applied to a granular medium, refers to particle-size distribution. Structure refers to the arrangement of the solid components of the medium. Essential structural considerations include porosity, aggregation, cementation, and

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