Communication theory is a driving force behind instructional design. Instruction is designed so that its objectives can be properly communicated and received by the learner. Both the learner and the designer receive feedback about the instructional process. System theory System theory is an inter-disciplinary theory which consist a set of concept, construct, facts and terms which describe and explain the characteristics and phenomena affecting with any system. Thinking instructional design as a concept of system or ‘a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together toward some common goal’ (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) Instructional designer should be aware of other system discipline.
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
The basic concept of learning is based on this theory. The mental processes as they are being influenced by either intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors, which eventually results in learning acquisition of an individual. Knowledge systems of cognitive structures are actively constructed by learners based on pre-existing cognitive structures. The teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that promotes discovery and assimilation/accommodation. The cognitive processes are: observing, categorizing, and forming generalizations about our environment.
Curriculum models provide a structure for teachers to “systematically and transparently map out the rationale for the use of particular teaching, learning and assessment approaches” in the classroom, and are regarded as an effective and essential framework for successful teachers (O’Neill 2015, p27). Feeding into a particular curricular stance, it is essential to recognise the multiplicity of sources which will govern this individual framework. Oronstein and Hunkins observe that, when designing a curricular stance, educators must first consider the “philosophical and learning theories” which will inform their “design decisions” (2009, p182). This approach is essential to ensure that the curricular approaches one selects are “consonant with
(Kelly, 2004). Learner participation is essential in curriculum as process. Terry Moore explains that learner participation can be defined in two ways; as “participation in what is going on in an educative experience” and secondly as “participation in decision-making about
Introduction Learning theories are the core guidance on planning the educational system. With the knowledge of the general principles,educators can manipulate their knowledge more efficiently to meet with diversity in learning circumstances. Theory by general definition is a the establishment and an explanation of the way brain acquiring knowledge. It is a sequence of a hypothesis that corresponding to each other which should be able to outline, clarify, predict or have control of the scenario. Learning theories defined as a description of learning and the approach towards the way a person obtain, assemble and use their skills and knowledge.
The learning frame of reference draws from the work of educational and developmental psychologists, teachers and behaviorists (Turner, 2002). It is founded on the assumption that adaptation and change are based on the ability to learn, and that behaviors are learned through acquisition of knowledge, experience and practice. The main focus in the learning frame of reference is for the person to learn coping skills. Useful approaches within this frame of reference for the case of Sarah would be educative approach and cognitive approach. Educative approach aims to provide the knowledge that clients and carers need in order to allow them to identify a range of options for problem-solving and to make the most appropriate choices of intervention.
Planning 1. Understanding the Standards: First, it is important to understand the standards and goals of a lesson. I ask myself when thinking of the standards, “What is expected and what does the outcome look like?” Then I think about what is necessary to reach these standards for each student. What skills and knowledge will they be using as a foundation? 2.
Teaching methods differ in terms of approach which as observed relate more to procedures which influence inner coherence, produce specific educational effects. The traditional approach embodies two, namely: (a) the didactic method, also called the directive or autocratic style, which is based on logo-centrism and an instructor-centred approach. Its focus is the teacher, who explains the logical and practical aspects of the issue or topic; secondly, (b) the dialectic method. In this approach, students are involved in the learning process and are expected to ask questions; thirdly, (c) The heuristic or research method. This method makes students the protagonists of their learning process, since they must find, guided by the instructor, and through research and experimentation, the solutions to the problems.