To start with, when celebrity start getting less popular, then the figures of their fans would fall too .Thus, the marketing of his/her advertised products acquires less recognition in the marketplace. After that, some personalities are really huge and the brand could be promptly outshined by the fame of that person (Mello, 2014). If this occurs, devoting millions of euros to such adverts begins to make no logic at all; several commercials even focus on celebrities excessively, this means there is no brand remembrance (Mello, 2014). Significantly, celebrity endorsement is very expensive and there is no assurance that it will bring reward in trade. For this reason, companies must think beforehand hiring any famous figure because there would be no turning back after spending too much money.
It is very important for marketers to analyse the endorser because it will influence the consumers purchase intention. Marketers can create the purchase desire by taking liking and trustworthiness into account. If the consumers like the celebrity then they will automatically trust them. Celebrities can earn their trust from the public on the work and achievement in the respective field and marketers utilises the trustworthiness in an advertisement. The trustworthiness is important in a celebrity endorser.
2.3.5 Celebrity-brand/product Congruence While analyzing the influences of a celebrity endorser on consumer attitudes and behaviors, it is critical to take into account of the celebrity-brand/product congruence, is also referred as the match-up hypothesis, which is another important stream in celebrity endorsement research. The match-up hypothesis concerns the necessity for an appropriate fit or a match between the celebrity and the brand or product being endorsed (Ilicic & Webster, 2011; Till & Busler, 1998). Kahle and Homer (1985) also depicted that there should be a fit or congruence between a celebrity endorser and the endorsed product or brand. Advertising effectiveness is enhanced when the celebrity endorser’s image fits or matches with
Attractiveness of celebrity endorsement will grab intention of consumers. Celebrity endorsement is used by companies to enjoy media exposure. Brand equity will be improved due to celebrity endorsement (Farrell, Karels, Monfort and McClatchey, 2000; Erdogan et al., 2001). Celebrity endorsement will give companies a competitive advantage over similar brands. However, celebrity endorsement will not be effective if they endorse more than one brand (Solomon,
(CHOI and Rifon, 2007). According to term ‘celebrity’ can be defined as, ”Celebrities are people who are known by public recognition by a vast share of peculiar Group of people.” (Schlecht, 2003) “Any individual who enjoys public recognition and this recognition is utilized on behalf of a consumer product by showing up with it in advertisement”. (Mc Crakcen, 1989) Celebrity endorsement is done by advertisers because of its huge profits endless possible influence. There are specific potential advantages of celebrity endorsement, the advertisement in which celebrities are endorsed get more attention as compared to non-celebrity ones, celebrity endorsement helps the company in re-positioning its product/brand and finally entitle the company when it penetrates new in the market or plans to move in international market. However, through celebrity endorsement a company cannot achieve sole key to success.
For example, if Bella Thorne did not advertise BooTea, then her fans would not have known that there is a tea brand that can help make your butt look better. Using celebrities to help promote products is how brands become popular, and it’s very efficient. It helps the celebrity and the brand become known and make more money. People have a right to start their own business and advertise it however they want, whether it’s on billboards, or a commercial during the Super Bowl, or on a game advertisement, or with the help of a celebrity. If a company chooses to put a famous figure on their cereal box or in one of their advertisements then they legally can, because it is an effective way to
McCracken (1989) Seno, Lukas (2007) and Pedhiwal (2011) observed that 'Celebrity Endorsement' today has become a trend and tool to a successful way for product marketing and brand building. Ohanian (1990) stated that celebrity endorsement is one of the strategies which companies believe and use to persuade a large number of people to purchase a product and increase market share. Park et al (2011) According to Pikas et al (2012), the use of celebrities to endorse products is a popular strategy used by lots marketers and companies. Athlete endorsers, is a part of celebrity endorsers who are also too popular and have their own distinct stand in the minds of consumers. In the United States, one of four advertisements and promotion uses celebrities
1. Introduction Celebrity endorsement is now a day's a very useful practice of advertising among various tools to market the product or services as well, for marketers it has been a winning formula. It is easy to select the best celebrity in advertisement but it is quite difficult to create the association between the product and celebrity The capability of two advertising tools celebrity endorsement and event sponsorship have an impact on consumer pre-purchase decision including perceptions with regard to product quality and uniqueness is the focus of this study.. Marketers are interested to make more customers who are potential and are influenced by celebrities. Day by day consumers are exposing to so many of voices and images through media including audio visual aids.
The research by Rashid et al (2002) asserts that celebrities can assist in the recognition of brand names, create positive feelings towards the brand and create a distinct personality for the endorsed brand. Celebrity endorsement is also believed to generate a greater likelihood of customers’ choosing the endorsed brand due to the existence of factors such as brand trustworthiness. Trustworthiness refers to the honesty and believability of the celebrity. The use of celebrity endorsements in an advertising strategy could enhance the marginal value of the advertisement expenditures and create brand equity. According to Salvatore and Washington (2007), the particular product – endorser combinations result in better overall attitude towards the product, greater intent to purchase the advertised product and more credibility for the endorser.
This theory refers to consumer’s behavior, when the consumer compares their self-image with the advertisement and the celebrity endorser. The more famous and attractive models in an advertisement conveys a greater image to the consumers in the sense of values and personality. The use of celebrity in advertisement provides a framework of reference and also points of comparison by which an individual evaluates the attitude in making a decision (kamins, 1990). The reappearing image of the celebrity endorser in social media further pushes the feeling of knowledge of this latter, which is also known as the concept of “remote intimacy”(theory given by Horton & Wohl in 1956). This congruence with the self-image, by certain brands, is also defined by the fact that celebrities plays a vital and role concerning the opinions to which consumer seeks to be