Concept Of Guidance And Counselling

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This chapter will highlight the concept of education, guidance and counselling, historical development and the need for guidance and counselling. It will also look at government involvement in guidance and counselling, the Counsellor and counselling, the role of head teachers in discipline management in primary Schools, guidance and counselling programme and discipline in primary schools, personal and social guidance and approaches to counselling. The other sections of the chapter included challenges facing the school management in implementing guidance and counselling, theoretical framework, conceptual framework and the summary of literature review Concept of education, guidance and counselling Njagi, (2007), argue red that African indigenous…show more content…
Systematic work was done by George Merrill in 1885 at California University. Other contributors to this were Godwin (1911), Weaver (1912) and Davis (1913), (Internet source). Witmer (1990) says that African traditions and cultures guided youth in social roles, values, belief system, sex, regimental roles and skills they would need to enhance their culture. As society is dynamic, there are rapid social and economic changes that affect the students in our schools According to Muithya (1996), in the traditional African society, character formation was achieved through intense formal and informal programme of guidance and counselling. Makinde (1984) notes that guidance and counselling has been an essential part of every society and each society had its own sources of wisdom which controlled and regulated social interactions. He states that in African society’s provision of guidance and counselling was effected through identified people to whom members could turn to when necessary. The “Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies of 1976” recommended that guidance and counselling be taught using subjects like Religious Education, Social Education and Ethics to enable the school promote the growth of self-discipline among students (Republic of Kenya,…show more content…
There is agreement among experts that there are three major components of guidance and counselling. These are educational guidance, vocational guidance and personal social guidance (UNESCO module 2000a). (Denga 2001) Each of these major components of guidance and counselling along with their services address students’ needs’, challenges and problems. The goal of guidance and counselling services is to enable each learner in institutions of learning to derive optimal educational benefits so as to actualize his/her potentialities Smith (2006) proposed and outlined ten stages of strength-based counselling to illustrate how the approach may be implemented. The ten stages are: (a) Creating the therapeutic alliance; (b) Identifying strengths; (c) Assessing presenting problems; (d) Encouraging and instilling hope; (e) Framing solutions; (f) Building strength and competence; (g) Empowering; (h) Changing; (i) Building resilience; and (j) Evaluating and terminating. Following the stages, the approach will result into a disciplined group of youths with a focus on the strengths that they have to achieve specific life goals. During the first African Conference on guidance and counselling in Nairobi (2002, 22nd- 26th April) in

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