In the literature, contradictory results have been found regarding the age of counterfeit consumers. Some researchers state that the most likely buyers of fakes are younger consumers (Tom et al., 1998; Kapferer, 2014), whereas other researchers argue that age has no impact on the intent to purchase counterfeits (Bloch et al., 1993; Wee et al., 1995). Social status has an influence as well since consumers of counterfeit products often buy them in order to show that they belong to a particular social group or want to improve their social standing. They want to demonstrate that they can afford branded goods and often use the product for symbolic self-extension (Eisend & Schuchert-Güler, 2006). However, Ting et al.
2 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.1 Dependent Variable – Attitudes towards Counterfeit Products Counterfeit products dilute the brand equity and minimize the symbolic value of authentic luxury products (Zhou and Hui, 2003). There might not be a noticeable difference in perceived quality as counterfeits are cheaper substitutes for expensive genuine products (Gentry et al. 2006). According to Tom (1998), consumers are motivated to purchase products with a fashion component attached such as luxury products. Consumers are willing to pay for the visual attributes and functions without paying for the quality.
Integrity cannot be defined, as it is subjective just as happiness, sadness, and even love. How integrity is defined in one country can differ immensely in another, just consider our national conflicts today. But now let’s define civility. One could define civility as the adherence to laws, or possibly social norms. Now, what if we take that definition even further.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Integrity Indistinct definition of integrity is still debatable. The concept of integrity is still not clear though it is being discussed widely (Trevinyo-Rodriguez, 2007; Palanski & Yammarino, 2007). The term of integrity is derived from the Latin term integer which means wholeness and completeness. Integrity is the consistency of an acting entity’s words and actions (Palanski & Yammarino, 2007). Trevinyo-Rodriguez (2007) also defined integrity as the bridge between character (personal psychology) and conduct or behaviour (ethics).
Social influence A consumer's consumption pattern is a reflection of his or her social class position. It is a more significant determinant of his or her buying behaviour than just income.62 People tend to associate themselves with the current social class position they are in or the class above them.63 Thus, they are more likely to buy branded products, which can convey brand status of affluence, wealth and social class. If brand status is important to consumers but they are unable to afford
2015:8). Fast fashion is further explored in the work of Bhardwaj and Fairhurst (2010). Bhardwaj and Fairhurst (2010) provide a neutral viewpoint towards the fashion industry, as well as looking into fast fashion from the supplier and consumer perspective. They provide information about the changes that have occurred within the fashion industry in the last twenty-some odd years. Bhardwaj and Fairhurst (2010) point out that in the late 1980’s, retailers used to predict what the fashion trends would be long before they were made public, which allowed them to manufacture the clothing items in advance.
In the past, the competition in the fashion industry was increased by several large retailers who dominated the fashion apparel industry. The competition then was largely product-driven. However, other retailers wanted to survive the competition and they changed their attention to buyers instead of products. By focusing on buyers, the fashion designs changed based on the buyers demands. This increased the profit margins for the retailers.
Better understanding of consumer result in an efficient marketing strategies. The factors that influence consumer decision in fashion clothing can be mainly divided into three variables: Demographic, Psychographic and Socio-Cultural Influences. Consumer and Consumer decision A consumer is one who determine personal wants, buy products, and uses those products.
Consumers with variety-seeking buying behavior have a low involvement in the purchasing of products but significant between brands. There are many choices of brand for them to choose. They usually experience the new kind of brand. This consumer has no loyalty to any brand. In fact, the definition of brand loyalty necessitates the absence of switching the behavior (Jacoby & Robert, 1978).
Integrity. A core building block fundamental to the successes of any professional in this world. Yet, what does it truly mean and how does it apply to internal auditing profession?? In the simplest form, integrity is described as ‘doing the right thing when no one is watching’. It requires courage to do the right thing, no matter what the consequences will be.