Manipulation Theory

1581 Words7 Pages
3. Theoretical Framework Since Lefevere put forward the manipulation theory, a great number of scholars and researchers have begun to apply it to news translation. According to the previous studies both at home and abroad, the manipulation theory has proven to be both workable and effective in explaining political news translation. Before applying the theory to the selected examples to be analyzed, it is necessary for readers to have a general idea of the origin and development of manipulation theory together with the notions of this theory. 3.1 Origin and Development of Manipulation Theory Since the 1970s, the focus of translation studies has shifted from the linguistic level to the cultural level on account of the emergence of “cultural turn”…show more content…
Toury clarified that the recipient culture, or a certain part of it, which works to determine what to translate and how to translate. Hence, translators are supposed to function in the interest of culture where they are producing translations, but not in the interest of the original texts or the source culture. In addition, he added that culture refers to the whole social context in which the translation takes place, together with criteria, ideology, values and convention of the recipient system. In 1990, Bassnett and Lefevere officially put forward the concept of cultural turn in their volume Translation, History and Culture in which the cultural turn is the key concept and the concept of culture takes on a wider sense. Later, based on the precious studies and findings, André Lefevere put forward the concepts of “translation as rewriting” and “rewriting as manipulation” in his book entitled Translation, Rewriting and The Manipulation of Literary Fame. He stresses that translation is a kind of rewriting, indicating all rewritings, whatever their intentions, reflect a certain ideology and poetics and manipulate literature to function in a given society in a given way. After we get familiar with the origin and development of Lefevere’s manipulation theory, this thesis tries to expound the notions of this…show more content…
Patronage is usually more interested in the ideology of literature than in its poetics, and it could be said that the patron “delegates authority” to the professional where poetics is concerned. Patronage can be exerted by persons, such as the Medici, Maecenas, political party, a social class, a royal court, publishers, and last but not least, the media, both newspapers and magazines and larger television corporations (Ibid: 15). Lefevere states that patronage basically consists of three elements that can be seen to interact in various combinations. There is an ideological component, which acts as a constraint on the choice and development of both form and subject matter. There is also an economic component: the patron sees to it that writers and rewriters are able to make a living, by giving them a pension or appointing them to some office. Finally, there is also an element of status involved (Ibid:

More about Manipulation Theory

Open Document