At this point, it became clear that language is an integral part of every culture and that, as such, it serves as a medium of its expression. Consequently, many aspects of culture are embedded in language. The act of translation, thus, is not simply a matter of language, but it, in fact, constitutes a sort of compromise between two cultures. Mary Snell-Hornby calls this new development "the Cultural Turn" (The Turns of Translation Studies 47). This marked the shift from the traditional approach to translating, which was largely prescriptive, source-text oriented, linguistic and atomistic to an approach that was descriptive, target-text oriented, functional and systemic (Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies 49).
Inoculation Theory The inoculation theory was proposed by McGuire in response to a situation where the goal is to persuade someone not to be persuaded by another. The theory is a model for building resistance to persuasion attempts by exposing people to arguments against their beliefs and giving them counter arguments to refute attacks. The theory therefore offers mechanisms by which communication is used to help people defend their beliefs. Need for the Theory In today’s world we are bombarded by information from all angles. There are a number of attempts being made on an everyday basis to persuade us in one direction or another.
This implies that a true translation is a diaphanous body and the original is the heart that shines through the pure language in the act of translation. Here the purpose of pure language is not to produce a literal copy of the original, but, rather to “harmonize” or to bring together the different languages in a way that allows a rebirth of the translation yet at the same time permits the continued growth of the original. This image represents a ghost that mediates between the original and the translation through pure language. That is, language has a soul and that soul has a body, namely, translation. This process is a complementary one which cannot unfold by treating only one
According to him translation can and should be recognized as a social phenomenon, a cultural practice. He said that we bring to translation both cognitive and normative expectations, which are continually being negotiated, confirmed, adjusted, and modified by practicing translators and by all who deal with translation. These expectations result from the communication within the translation system, for instance, between actual translations and statements about translation, and between the translation system and other social systems. In 2002, regarding cultural translation Hervey and Higgins believed in cultural translation rather than literal one. According to them accepting literal translation means that there’s no cultural translation operation.
So it is really important to know the culture before translate a poem. This is what Tomas Tranströmer said, we must improve the translation poetry breaking the barriers of the culture to achieve the globalization in literature, the World Literature. If we achieved this aim, we will be able to expand our cultural background and we will be able to read excellent works that at the moment are
Gideon Toury argues that this approach does not conceive the translation process as being a prescriptive process, imposing 'correct ' or 'wrong ' laws or forms of translation. In an inverse process, it seeks to analyze and describe the translations according to a target context and the cultural system in which the translation will be read. In the author 's words, “[...] Translations be regarded as facts of the culture that would host them, with the concomitant assumption that whatever their function and systemic status, these are constituted within the target culture and reflect its own systemic constellation” (TOURY, 2012:
Modern Translation Theories There is no doubt that translation theories have witnessed remarkable developments in the modern period, which results in significant contributions in the domain of translation. The major developments of the theoretical approaches, including philosophical approach, the linguistic approach, the cultural approach, the postcolonial and related foreignising approaches have made their remark in translation theoretical discourse. These major theoretical movements, including the philosophical approach of the 1920s; the linguistic oriented approach of the 1950s and 1960s; the functional approach (Skopos Theory theory); establishment of translation studies as an independent field in 1980; cultural turn approach in 1990;
Translation Theory The issue of translation theory and its connection with translation process has always been under concern among scientists. One of the main urgent questions about translation theory, whether it can be an independent scientific discipline or if the translation theory can be a part of descriptive linguistics was observed by Prof. Dr. Thomas Herbst (2005) in his article Translation Theory – merely a descriptive discipline? In his work, Prof. Dr. Thomas Herbst (2005) provided several facts which are important and basic for translation theory itself: “Fact 1 – that translation is a phenomenon that plays an enormous role in the world’s communication process at the beginning of the twenty-first century; Fact 2: This importance
Introduction Nowadays, translation has become a universal activity. It is the act of interpreting a text into another language or into one's own from another language. It requires mastery of the target language and very good knowledge of the source language. Translation is certainly not a simple task. It requires to be able to handle and overcome the linguistic and semantic issues that are associated with translating texts.
1.1 INTORDUCTION Translation teaching is a problematic issue, not for our schools, in our region, but all over the world. Translation used as a tool of learning or to improving the skills of some disciplines such as a foreign language teaching, grammar, and rhetoric. The historical review will call us to remember the famous Greek orators such as Cicero. Cicero considered translation as a method of effective speeches in the rhetoric area. It is clear that the translation teaching is a non discrete discipline up to the 1950s of the last century.