4.4. Views of Curriculum Several researchers acknowledged the influential role of humans’ conceptions about teaching/learning and knowledge which are driven by their ideologies and philosophies (Lawton, 1989; Kelly, 1999). Bellalem (2008) put it differently and admitted that our “epistemological beliefs about the nature of knowledge and how knowledge should be taught and learnt” (p. 42) delineate the desired curriculum. The following are views conceived from different perspectives being (1) ideological and philosophical conceptions (Lawton, 1983, 1989), (2) approaches to curriculum (Smith, 2000), and (3) beliefs (Kemmis, Cole, and Suggett, 1983). 4.4.1.
THE PROCESS OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) provides a holistic model of the learning process and is a multi-linear model of adult development, both of which are concerned with what we know about how we naturally learn, grow, and develop. The theory is called "Experiential learning" to emphasize the central role played by experience in the learning process. Experiential learning focuses on individual learning. For example, you are going to another country to interact and experience new things. What you learn through interacting and observing that country is experiential learning, oppose to reading about that country in a book.
In implementing Organizational Strategy decisions, these are the decisions that are required: a) What content should be presented? b) How should this content be presented? c) What sequence should the instruction follow? Appendix 4 provides an overview of the content of the course that will be presented. Marco and Micro-instructional strategy The instructional design usually starts with the Marco-strategies which are to focus on the scope and sequence structures and also the Micro strategies which is the expanded instructional event.
(371) According to Simon’s definition, pedagogy is concerned with the fact that practice and processes should be taken into account on how knowledge is produced. Thus, both theory and practice become key factors in interplay with pedagogy encompassing the two factors. That being said, schools nowadays adopt different teaching
In this essay, however, we are mainly interested in defining formal education since our discussion will dwell much on it. According to Nwomonoh (1998) , formal education is the process of gaining knowledge, attitudes, information and skills during the course of life especially at school. Though education is said to be so instrumental in human development but also in the revamping of world economies, it is very unfortunate
So, by introducing organized and well teaching methods in education department and institution we have to developed the country so, we can say that imbalance teaching methods are mostly being problems in education. (James Nichols, 1995) We should adopt authentic way of
The theoretical framework consists of the basic theory. This theory will support the data in the research as the data will be analyze by using the theory. In analyzing the language teaching method, the basic theory is taken from book “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” written by Jack Richards and Rodgers (1986). In the book, there three kinds of procedure of language teaching which are approach, method and technique. The three procedures are related to another.
It was urged and hoped that it would shift the focus of education from need of learning to love for learning; (NCERT, 2000) it would reduce anxiety and stress of the learners; it would assess the learners holistically and it would enhance the level of learning performance due to timely diagnosis and appropriate remedial intervention. Though it is widely discussed and largely implemented in the whole country, it is still in the experiment stage and keeps a large scope for improvement for yielding the best output. Syllabus has three key interactive constituents, viz. learning objectives, instructional activities and assessment, which influence each other in the learning process (Fig-1). The instructional activities include the methodology of teaching, classroom interaction, techniques, strategies and the teaching-learning materials.
I. SUMMARY: This integration paper have four (4) topics about Outcomes-Based Education: 1. Transformational Perspective on Quality and Mobility in Higher Education; 2. Novel Outcomes-Based Educational Model and its Effect on Student Learning Curriculum Development, and Assessment; 3. Status of implementation and usefulness of Outcome-Based Education in the Engineering Department of an Asia; and, 4. the Handbook on Typology; Outcomes-Based Education, and Institutional Sustainability Assessment.