Figurative language takes many different forms in linguistics and literature. Figures of speech, for example, similes, metaphors, and allusions go past the literal meaning of the word to give the readers new experiences and insight. In addition, alliterations, imageries, or onomatopoeias are figurative devices that speak to the senses of the readers such as auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory, visual, and gustatory. Figurative language can show up in various structures with the utilization of various artistic and rhetorical devices. Then again, what makes an effective use of figurative language?
Thus, deviation might concern a particular part of sentence which depends on the communication context between the writer and the readers. Therefore, the discourse might be conventional or unconventional in various senses. Thus, the writer utilized the different elements of figures of speech such as metaphor, irony, simile and alliteration. In this way, the writer intends to achieve a lot of aesthetic effects within his literary works. Thus, he is able to support a lot of social and cultural relations and misleading the readers to mysterious directions without lying to them.
Translation: Translation is an act of interpretation of meaning of a text in one language and subsequent production of an equivalent or nearly equivalent text in another language that is able to yield the same message found in the source language. Translation is one of the best means of borrowing ideas from different communities. This was historically done between various civilizations when there were huge literary translations so that there was exchange of literature corresponding to both arts and technology. In recent times there have been long term efforts to create an automated transformation which may partially or totally automate the process of translation. But as translation is a complex task, which has various factors like syntax and semantics that should be preserved while
Thanks to them we are able to understand some concepts relating to the world that we would not be able to understand otherwise, especially when it comes to abstract concepts. Yet, metaphors used in everyday language are useful to understand the kind of metaphors present in poetry. ( Lakoff and Turner, page 186) Conceptual metaphor link two conceptual domains respectively called the source-domain ( also designated as “events” page 207) and the target-domain ( also called “space” page 207). The first one can be understood as the origin of the meaning while the target-domain is structured thanks to the source-domain through metaphorical link as Lakoff states that “metaphors are understood to be mapping”, in page 194 with the expression “each conventional metaphor, that is, each mapping” and are designated as “fixed pattern of ontological correspondence”. Stated this way, it can be hard to understand what it means but the following examples provide some clarity
Paradigms are ways of perceiving the world in terms of both the problems that can be addressed and the evidence that may have a bearing on their solution, says, Margherita Ulrych, a translation scholar. He continues, when the existing paradigm accumulated so many defects that it essentially becomes untenable, the paradigm is challenged and replaced by new ways of perceiving the world. Translation studies also witness profound paradigm shifts in recent years along with literature, linguistics, social studies, cultural studies etc. This shift is from strictly comparing the original source text with the target text to descriptive translation studies, where many fundamental issues pertaining to historical, social and cultural compulsions which
Often such work portrays a particular configuration of statements, symbols, and meanings as an example of underlying and enduring collective understandings produced in extended ideological struggles. The epistemological assumptions behind such representations are that the rationality of the elements establishing the frame map to some corresponding consistency in a belief system. This is seen as particularly important for purposes of frame alignment. However, the presupposition is that this framing discourse is an internally stable enough tool for the communication of meaning so that interpretive strategies for mobilization and action are possible. In many of their analyses, frame analysts also assume some isomorphism between their abstractions and the ways in which people actually use framing
Art puts obstacles in the way of reader to oblige him to think about the text and art. It is common in the literature to enjoy the use of expression (authorized-metaphor, metaphor-metonymy) and innovative techniques (opacity-ambiguity, pun,paradox, humor, etc.) in different
The first is in the comic style while the latter is more realistic. Emphatic Head Gestures can be used to evoke powerful feelings of convictions. Such movement, usually up and down, punctuates and emphasizes dialogue. Often these are synchronized with the rhythm and phasing of the words. However, when overused, the affect become redundant and looses impact.
2.2 Grammatical metaphor Grammatical metaphor is one of the most interesting theoretical notions developed by Halliday (1985/1994) within Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG). Functional Grammar defines metaphors as variations in the expression of meaning rather than just variations in the use of words. Functional Grammar looks at metaphors from a different perspective, not asking “how is this word used?” but “how is this meaning expressed?” or “how is grammar structured to make the text effective in the achievement of purpose?” There is a kind of transference going on, the transfer of representation between different grammatical categories. The difference in the message is the kind of meaning variation which Halliday (1994) calls Grammatical
There is such a variety of definitions regarding discourse that make it difficult to stick to one definition, therefore the context to which discourse is used is helpful to narrowing down a less diverse definition. Michel Foucault (philosopher, social theorist and literary critic) used various definitions of discourse at separate instances. The rough definition that Foucault suggests for Discourse is ‘the general domain of all statements’. He also defines discourse as an adapted cluster of statements, which could relate to the distinct structures in discourse. Discourse has to do with distinguishing groups of statements which are controlled in a way that they match and reach a mutual effect.