Concrete: cellular concrete of clay- gypsum and invention of light weight concrete Ferro concrete: this concrete is made up of a layer of fine mesh wire saturated with cement. Gunite: or commonly referred as a shot crete. This type or form of concrete is most commonly used in areas where formwork is limited or hard to use. Shoring up exposed vertical excavations, banks or surfaces susceptible to collapse. For example, vertical soil or rock surfaces.
It is a BIM tool that is capable of generating high quality, precise architectural designs. It is used by many professionals to reduce risk and improve project delivery. Revit is primarily used for designing the 3D model of buildings to be studied. It is a software that integrates conceptual modeling with whole building energy analysis, and allows developers to make important decisions in phases of projects. Ultimately, Revit is used to streamline the engineering design process by using a single model to enhance the communication of design intent before construction begins.
Study of deformable bodies will help researchers integrate the set parameters in a pontoon bridge to designing the pontoon bridge. Experiments can be done to acquire “strength” of materials. The objective of this stage is to specifically acquire strength, stiffness, and stability of a body. The experiment must be designed to help the researcher understand the reaction of a pontoon bridge’s strength, stiffness, and body stability to certain external loads and projective external loads. Projective external loads are assumed to be the maximum external forces that can occur in the pontoon bridge.
Besides that, in order to design structural elements many steps, formulas and calculations are needed based on codes of practice. Therefore, to ease the designing process, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets will be developed in order to carry out the design of structural elements. This spreadsheet can produce a design output faster than manual hand calculations. This final year project is focusing on the comparison of serviceability, limit state, bar anchorage and lap lengths of beam design according to British Standard 8110 and EC 2 using Microsoft Excel. A case study of a single storey reinforced concrete
(Engineers say "Stress is proportional to strain".) In symbols, F = kx, where F is the force, x is the stretch, and k is a constant of proportionality. If Hooke's Law is correct, then, the graph of force versus stretch will be a straight line. Tensile testing experiment Purpose of the experiment: Tensile testing is one of the most fundamental tests for engineering,and provides valuable information about a material and its associated properties. These properties can be used for design and analysis of engineering structures, and for developing new materials that better suit a specified use.The basic idea of a tensile test is to place a sample of a material between two fixtures called "grips" which clamp the material.
Various materials used for manufacturing a chain link are steel, stainless steel, carbon steel, alloys etc. The chain link which we have considered is used for hoisting purposes, this is because the oval shape is ideal for crane hook as the depth of the crane hook is greater than the width. We will study stresses induced in the link. It is necessary to study the stress distribution, deformation and deflection so as to avoid design failure and loss. The necessary information required for the project like material properties, type of load to be applied, intensity of load is taken from the textbook ‘Strength of Materials ’ by Dr. R. K. Bansal.
The mechanical properties of concrete determined in the laboratory include compression strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural tensile strength. The influence of partial replacement of fine aggregates by copper slag on the compressive strength, split tensile strength on cylinders and flexural strength of prisms has been evaluated. The test results showed that there is a possibility of use of copper slag as fine aggregate in
Portland cement mixed with sand, gravel and water, a process called hydration, is how concrete is created. Crushed stone aggregate fine and coarse aggregates make up the bulk of a concrete mixture. Durability of concrete may be defined as the ability of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack, and abrasion while maintaining its desired engi-neering properties. Different concretes require different degrees of durability de-pending on the exposure environment and properties desired. For example, concrete exposed to tidal seawater will have different requirements than an indoor concrete floor.
I had first formal exposure to civil engineering in course “Architecture 1”. This course provided me the fundamental concepts of civil architectural principles such as designing procedure, architectural component’s layouts, functional spaces as well as environmental impacts. To strengthen my concepts I pursued the courses “Strength of Materials”, “Structural Mechanics” which gave me essential knowledge about the external and internal forces occuring in simple structural elements under action of various types of loading as well as fundamental concepts in structural analysis such as modellisation, classification of structures. I gained valuable exposure to the analysis of simple structures submitted to compound loadings by the application of the principle of superposition for such cases as: unsymmetric bending, combined bending and tension or compression, combined bending and torsion, general compound loading. Futhermore, I was fascinated by the force method and displacement method for analysis of statically and kinetically indeterminate structures.
of architecture which including history, identity, culture, prosperity or spirit of a city. Accordingly, to reach this process of the dialectics of nature, tradition, and modern avant-garde architecture, Frampton constituted a theoretical background representing critical regionalism. In addition to that critical regionalism adopts the principle of the tectonic reality and place in architecture. In other words, the architect should create the tectonic reality by using the physical dimensions of the site consisting of topography, climate; the sensual features consisting of light, heat, weather movements as well as the visual features and even the materials that are taken by the foreign resources as well as the local resources. For this, the integration