Confederate Battle Flag Research Paper

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Accordingly, at the end of 1861 the Army of Northern Virginia adopted a (square) battle flag based on a design that had initially been rejected for the First Confederate flag and was distinct from that of the United States flag: a red field with a white-bordered dark blue saltire, the latter again bearing white stars equal in number to the number of states in the Confederacy. This banner (which became known as the "Southern Cross") was also later used in its more familiar rectangular form as the battle flag of the Army of Tennessee, and (with a lighter blue saltire) as the Second Confederate Navy Jack from 1863
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