Lack of public space identification, Ethnic politics in Uganda is related to the lack of a link that seals a common identity and destiny. As I have already mentioned most of them came to power with the help of the coups and the military (MUGAJU, Justus, & J. OLOKA-ONYANGO 2000), in order to survive, many politicians have used the same tricks in the book; they have pitched ethnic groups against each other. Given the determination of the NRM to monopolize power indefinitely, the situation opens the door for methods that lack any democratic pretense (Mwakikagile 2012). The tragedy for the country is that it has emerged out ethnically organized, militaristic and authoritarian which relies on ethnic chauvinism and resists democratization of the state power, because the system of ethnic hegemony survives on state resources. In the same way as slave trade and colonization were facilitated by African collaborators, they have managed to use the system of hegemonic exchange which has been achieved through tribal alliances and
It pushed Kenya through liberation. Kenyans had issues like the Kikuyu tenant expulsion from peasants, loss of land, poverty and a lack of trustworthy in political representation for Africans received the propulsion for the rebel. During the 8th year of uprising, About 32 white settlers and about 200 British police and soldiers were assassinated. More than 1800 African civilians were assassinated and as well assassinated 20 000 Mau Mau rebels. Even though the uprising was managed again the British colonial force and the white community, lot of violence took place between the African loyalists and the rebel.
This war prolonged for 15 years and it was one specifically caused by the African native’s collective need to attain political independence as well as access to economic resources and land. Laws enforced by the Rhodesian government too sparked the war as the government had implemented laws such as: Native Land Husbandry Act and the Land Appointment Act 1930. Laws such as these prohibited Africans from staying in agriculturally productive areas . The natives too felt that their country was held in the wrong hands as the British dominated it as well as run. External factors such as communism and China too had a role in the war as communist countries supported some Zimbabwean parties .The ZANLA was supported by North Korea and the People’s Republic of China and the ZAPU was supported by the USSR and East Germany.
When peace failed to come, Liberia spiraled into an extremely bloody civil war. Armon and Carl write that “the outbreak of the Liberian civil war cannot be explained by a single dominant factor. The war grew out of the domestic, socio- economic and political environment of the 1980s.” The civil war lasted for seven years and resulted in mass devastation, including 200,000 casualties and thousands of refugees. The war finally came to an end in 1996, and shortly thereafter, Charles Taylor was appointed president of Liberia. These few years caused damage to the society of Liberia.
However, according to Asnake (2002), their conflict has been intensified and transformed in to frontier conflicts after the introduction of ethnic federalism and restructuring of the state post 1991. Although it seemed a little bit exaggerated, after mentioning the various ethnic conflicts in current Ethiopia, (Aregawi, unknown: 12) explained the widespread nature of ethnic conflict in Ethiopia as “no ethnic group in Ethiopia seems to have smooth relationship and live at peace with its
La Guerra Sucia La Guerra Sucia is the worst war in Argentina’s history. The war started in 1974 and ended around 1983. During this period military and security forces known as the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (Triple A) hunted down and killed left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism. 30,000 plus people disappeared and taken to detention centers where they were tortured and eventually killed. A military coup overthrew Juan Peron and restored Argentine oligarchy in 1955.
Uprisings were growing more violent and there was a real fear of a civil war breaking out. Negotiations were taking place with Nelson Mandela. After PW Botha suffered a stroke, De Klerk was elected as the new party leader. Most NP politicians backed FW De Klerk and not PW Botha because they felt he was too autocratic and felt that it would be his fault if a civil war broke out. FW De Klerk was appointed as the new president and he implemented many new policies and changed most of PW Botha’s policies.
Dismissing religion-based explanation, this narrative establishes that Boko Haram is a localised symptom of a wider malaise, namely structural poverty and exclusion, across Nigeria. Indeed, the corrupt political elites, by failing to foster development, have condemned the country to socio-economic deprivation . As a response, Boko Haram has been trying to replace malfunctioning secular institutions with Sharia – the Islamic law that regulates a Muslim’s life. Overall, this discourse assigns blame to the ruling elite as it deems it unable develop a model of good governance in Nigeria. Hence, the solution would be to replace the central government with one that successfully delivers security and development.
They Believed in a socialist government, and a stronger sense of nationalism. After the dispute war between Somalia and Ethiopia, things go worst internationally. Moreover after the border war in 1977, coalition of armed oppositions started followed by the civil war of Somalia and the collapse of the central government of Somalia in 1991. However, Clanism and extended family loyalties and conflicts were social problems the civilian government failed to eradicate and eventually succumbed to
The current ruling party after taking its position abolish the old system of the electoral system by the caretaker government and passed laws to conduct a general election under the election commission of the country. Unfortunately, the election commission failed to gain the trust of the opposition, consequently the boycotts last general election. Similarly, different laws are misused by the government to control the freedom of expression of the other political parties. Even the law enforcement agencies are used to suppress the voice of the civil societies. Furthermore, the list of enforced disappearances and extrajudicial killings has increased alarmingly during the last few