Nigerian Genocide In 1967 a civil war started in Nigeria, this was also known as the Nigerian genocide. In 1960 Nigeria gained its independence from from Britain. Six years later the Muslim Hausas in Northern Nigeria started to kill Christian Igbos that were in the region. This caused tens of thousands to flee to the east were the Igbos were the dominant ethnic people.
“Military men would always overthrow one another, because they could, because they were all power drunk” (24) illustrates the internal governmental struggle in Nigeria during this book and a result of the “bloody coups of the sixties” (24). Nigeria is industrialized due to colonization of the British (Hurst) and is shown to be true as Papa owns a factory and newspaper branch known as “the Standard” (24). The industrialization of Nigeria is a direct effect from the colonization of Africa during the majority of the twentieth century. The colonization and the independence of Nigeria from Britain in 1960 led to an “ethnic tension in
Boko Haram (official name - Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati wal-Jihad, Arabic for ‘People Committed to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad’) is a militant Islamic Group founded in 2002. Since its founding, it has caused havoc in Nigeria and its neighbouring countries namely Niger, Chad and Cameroon through a wave of violent abductions, bombings and assassinations - with the aim of overthrowing the government and establishing an Islamic Caliphate. Boko Haram was labelled as a terrorist organization by the United States of America in 2013, amid fears that it had developed links with other militant groups, such as al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), to wage a global Jihad. Nevertheless, it is noted that Boko Haram has turned
1) a) John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States; he supported the civil rights of African American and promised to assault the Soviets if they tried forcing communism in America; however, he tried to maintain peace and prevent nuclear war in the United states. 2) b) Flexible response was a policy taken by Kennedy and his team to prevent the occurring of nuclear war and the usage of nuclear weapons because if the nuclear war started it will have a huge effect on the whole country and the citizens. 3) c) Fidel Castro was a leader eho declared himself a communist, thus forcing the communist rule in Cuba. The enforcement led to the Cuban missile crisis and the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Cuban Missile Address is delivered October 22nd, 1962 in the Presidential office through a major radio and television address (Podell, Anzovin, and States United 705). Historically, it is worth mentioning that United States had attempted to overthrow Fidel Castro, who was at the time Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba, in at least two occasions known as the Bay of Pigs Operation and Operation Mongoose, because of his communist regime and close relationship with the Soviet Union (Pious). Then, after the Bay of Pigs incident, Fidel Castro urged Nikita Khrushchev, the Secretary General of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to send support and weapons to Cuba, because of the fear of another attack to his person/regime, Nikita did by sending missiles capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction, hence, this major crisis that lasted 14 days ending October 28, 1962 (Deinema and Leydesdorff). In addition, the target audience for this speech is the American people as President starts his speech with the phrase, “Good evening, my fellow citizens” (Kennedy); however, the secondary audience would be the Cuban people, whom he describes as captive people, the Soviet Union leaders, whom he directly addresses and even quotes, and Fidel Castro of course (Kennedy). As noted above, the cultural, socio-political context is important to understand the seriousness of this crisis and
Whenever there is an attempt of protest from the oppressed for oil company activities and environmental damage, Nigerian security forces have repeatedly beaten, detained and even killed people. The acts by oil companies continue to trouble the Niger Delta region to
One option during the Cuban Missile Crisis was to go into an all out nuclear war. None of the countries wanted this option, but it was still possible. This is true because in Document C it says, “The most important thing for us is to get an agreement as soon as possible.” This proves that both the USSR and the US wanted to come to a quick
Conclusion The Cuban Missile Crisis turned out to be nothing but a feud between some countries. It was an important part of the 1960’s still. One thing is that the United States knew better than to fight back because they knew it would lead to World War three.
Also, one must be mindful of the lens through which military leadership of that time scaled threats and problem solved. The saying, old generals fight the last war, comes to mind with the Cuban problem. Kennedy’s generals were Eisenhower holdovers and they had been very adept at proliferation on the conventional level. For example, before the first atomic weapons were dropped over Japan, resulting in Japan’s surrender, General Curtis Lemay was the architect of the relentless carpet bombing strategy over Tokyo, resulting in over a hundred thousand deaths.
1. Both the American President John Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev seemed to be realistic about the Cuban Missile Crisis. They both represented the states that were standing apart and had their self-interests in the events that occurred. Besides, from the realistic point of view, Kennedy understood that the only way to withstand the crisis and prevent the new war would be to show their power, which is essential within the Realist framework, and take active actions since the interest of the state required that. Besides, being realists, both leaders understood that there is no way to involve the non-governmental organizations in the solution.
In January of 1959, Fidel Castro came to power. The United States’ attempted to overthrow Castro with the Bay of Pigs Invasion, a CIA operation to overthrow Fidel Castro by landing 1200 disgruntled Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs. The attempt fails miserably and is a huge embarrassment for Kennedy, who then vows to bring down Castro. After the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion, Castro looked to the Soviet Union for protection. According to document D in 1962 “The soviets began shipping 40,000 troops, 60 missiles and 158 nuclear warheads to communist Cuba.”
This book talks about when the United States almost started a full nuclear war because of a few soviet missiles flew into the states allegedly. They flew B-47s and B-52s as air fleets for 40 years of this international problem between the Soviet Union and the United States. In the year 1945 America ended World War 2, as the head nuclear power in the world. Even though the U.S. was the nuclear power, they did not have any nuclear bombs. The whole point of this “cold war” was to maintain a peace among uneasy times, which did not work.
The accumulation of weapons and changes made to the defense system in Cuba was a source of concern and attracted the attention of the presidency and the top brass of the military in eliminating the threat presented by Cuba way before its eruption. In the course of the crisis, the President relied heavily on the intelligence system for the much-needed information to enable the making of informed decisions, all of which functioned to rescue the nation from the most serious crisis since the conclusion of the Second World