In 1993, UN formed the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) after ECOWAS mediated the Cotonou Peace agreement among the opposition sides. It worked together with ECOMOG, since ECOMOG had been existed, in terms of the implementation of Cotonou Peace
Lastly, Eurasia does not agree to the International Court of Justice jurisdiction over this case, so it has no right to sue the country. Countries must agree to decide matters within the ICJ and Eurasia does not accept. In this case, Eurasia has more of a case than
A Liberation Committee was built up to help independence developments and take care of the interests of effectively independent states. The OAU additionally expected to remain unbiased regarding worldwide governmental issues, which would keep them from being controlled again by outside powers, a particular risk with the Cold War. The OAU had other aims, as well: Guarantee that all Africans appreciated human rights. Raise the expectations for everyday comforts of all Africans. Settle conflicts and debate between individuals not through battling but instead peaceful and diplomatic transaction (Sibanda,
I believe that the AU should find African solutions to African problems because if it is left for the United Nations the cultural aspects to many of the issues in Africa, tend to be overlooked or undermined. To substantiate my argument I will make reference to cases where international originations have attempted to come and aid African issues but have failed. The first occurrence I will use is the attempt of the UN to initiate peace keeping in Congo in 1960. The UN Operation of the Congo (UNOC) saw more UN peace keepers lose their lives than in any other UN sanctioned operation due to the lack of understanding the ethnic differences. This disastrous event saw the UN pull out of African issues for almost 25 years (Mays, 2003).
For instance, UN peacekeepers need the consent of all parties in order to intervene, which requires a lot of time (Mouat), and in most situations, there is no time and immediate intervention is required. The overwhelming duties of UN peacekeepers and their restrictive orders make it really difficult for UN peacekeepers to establish peace in time, and, thus, there are often a lot of casualties. On top of that, the purpose of peacekeeping, which is to keep peace, often cannot attain justice. In most of the UN peacekeeping operations there is no peace to keep, and the making of peace is required. For instance, in the Rwandan genocide, the country was extremely chaotic and there was already no peace, and since the UN peacekeepers’ orders were just to keep the peace and not restore it; about 800 000 people in Rwanda
The EU Action Plan sets out concrete actions to counter and prevent migrant smuggling and is based on a multidisciplinary approach, involving actors and institutions at local, regional, national and international level. It also draws from a range of measures across different policy areas such as migration management, border control, law enforcement and police cooperation and internal security. The EU Action Plan did proposals to improve the EU legal framework; launched inclusion of data on migrant smuggling to Eurostat regular collection of crime statistics; established partnership with business operators in the filed most affected by smuggling, such as shipping, transport and internet content; stated the goal to strengthen the effectiveness of return policy in order to constrain the migrant smuggling to
Where do the Western Balkan countries stand concerning European integration? This question coming after a prolonged period of engagement and expectation of Balkan countries to become EU members and facing the rising risks of Euro sceptics and Radicals, takes a special focus on public and political debates. On May 9th of each year, besides marking the anniversary of Schuman's Historical Declaration is also a reminder to celebrate peace and unity in Europe. But even this May, more than 65 years after Schuman's declaration, Western Balkan countries are still awaiting accession to the European Union. Always a step forward but still not ready, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo seem to have a long journey towards full membership, because of a ban on a 5- Year extension of the enlargement process, stated by European Commission President Jean Claude Juncker.
The East African Community was initially formed in 1967, only to be dissolved in 1977 due to a myriad of challenges. By the time of its dissolution, it had achieved very deep levels of integration to the extent of being touted as a global model for regional integration. It was later revived through a treaty signed on 30 November 1999. The revived EAC largely borrowed from Balassa’s stages of economic integration in coining its objectives, that is, to become a customs union, then common market, then monetary union and eventually a political federation. Possibly borrowing from the previous high levels of integration, the revived EAC has been rated the best performing REC in Africa on regional integration.
The main challenges for the EU right now are the enlargement issue, the economic crisis, the rise of the far-right wing which are all inter-connected with each other, the democratic deficit. Firstly, the European Union is a complex and unique organisation, not a state and not a federation, which makes it quite hard to grasp how all the European countries work together. National parliaments have less power since European decisions are made by the Commission and national ministers in the Council. The European Parliament is too weak. Their role is to debate and ultimately pass laws as well as the EU budget but the Council is the one that dominates the discussion.