CONFLICT THEOREM: A CASE STUDY ON MANAGING CONFLICTS Abstract This case is related to Conflict present in every organisation. It aims to present conflict management practices, their compliance with the diverse workplace environment and analyze the effectiveness of conflict management procedures based on workplace diversity and gender differences. The paper reviews the literature on conflict management, growth of main principles in the society, and differences in techniques based on gender characteristics. It discusses conflict structures, types, and challenges that may occur at a diverse workplace when managing conflicts and speak about the role of managers in the diverse working environment. It also suggests conflict management strategies for managers and employees in the organisation.
Precisely, process conflict concerns issues, like who should do what and how much responsibility different people should get (Jehn & Mannix, The Dynamic Nature of Conflict: a Longitudinal Study of Intragroup Conflict and Group Performance, 2001). In earlier studies it was argued that process conflict can lead to a lower level of group moral, due to dissatisfaction with the uncertainty caused by process conflict and the desire to leave the group (Jenner, 1997). Process conflicts are easily observed in large groups, where disputes and frustrations over responsibilities and assignments are
Interpersonal work conflict is defined as a lack of agreement (Lawless and Trif, 2016). There are three sources of interpersonal conflict: personal, interactional difficulties, and perception (Borkowski, 2016, p. 308). The inherent differences in people, in perceptions, and experiences lead to countless number of personal conflicts in the workplace which impact performance and outcomes (Lipsett, 2012, p. 1). Interactional difficulties are ultimately the result of mismatched communication and relational skills (Borkowski, 2016, p. 309). Perspective differences are created by the combination of conflicting personal characteristics and interactional difficulties subjected the individual's interpretation (Borkowski, 2016, p. 309).
Conflict can be defined as an open clash or be incompatible between two opposing parties whom is not agreed to another. In other word, a conflict of interest is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. The reason is because our world today is full with sophistication and complexity. Nowadays, conflict can be said as a common thing to have in our daily life. Without realizing the situation we faced, indirectly we are actually encountering a conflict.
Task conflict In contrast to performance conflicts, task conflicts entail disagreements among group members about the content and outcomes of the task being performed (de Wit, Jehn, & Greer, 2012). Yet, task conflict is believed to be the most beneficial type of organizational conflict – when compared to the other two types. It refers to the conflicts and disagreements among individuals related to a certain task, its content, direction and goal. Different opinions, viewpoints, decisions and proposed changes are some of the chief causes of task conflict. Low to medium level of ongoing task conflict is considered healthy for the organization because it stimulates creativity, healthy competition and provides the possibility of a better outcome through constant discussions and different
pisodes of conflict in work groups are inevitable. Conflicts occur when there is disagreement between group members about which course of action to take, an interpersonal issue or difference of ideas. When a conflict arises, many times there is a good reason for it. Unclear plans, ambiguous roles and different perspectives on the best method to reach the group goal need to be addressed. An open discussion where all group members can express their viewpoints and ask questions is the starting point.
First, this conflict has led to discouragement and loss of motivation among volunteers and staff. This has led to a negative impact on the quality of their work. Secondly, this conflict has made volunteers and staff to lose confidence in the leadership team. This has resulted from the fairly public way in which discord and conflict within the leadership team have been expressed by the members. Lastly, this conflict has led to polarization of volunteers and staff in the organization along the lines of religion and race.
For example, an employee may wrongly attribute to his or her supervisor a cut in the employee’s department budget, which may have been done by higher-level managers over the protest of the supervisor. Displaced Conflict This type of conflict occurs when the conflicting parties either direct their frustrations or hostilities to social entities who are not involved in conflict or argue over secondary, not major, issues (Deutsch, 1977). 2.8 Summary of literature review This chapter reviewed the literature relevant to this research study. The causes of organizational conflict were discussed and possible techniques available in managing organizational conflict. The literature also gave an insight into possible impact organizational conflict has on organizational performance.
Conflict may be defined as a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, beliefs, values, or goals. Conflict is inevitable; however, the results of conflict are not predetermined. Conflict might escalate and lead to nonproductive results, or conflict can be beneficially resolved and lead to quality final products. Therefore, learning to manage conflict is integral to a high-performance team. Although very few people go looking for conflict, more often than not, conflict results because of miscommunication between people with regard to their needs, ideas, beliefs, goals, or values.
Some researchers such as Murmnigham & Conlon (1991), Jehn (1999), Dirks & Parks (2003), Ongori (2009), Whitlam & Cameron (2012) have mostly classified the causes of organizational conflict under three categories which include; task conflict, interpersonal conflict and procedural conflict. Task conflict occurs when an employee is unclear about what is expected of him/her to perform, or how to perform the assigned task, task interdependent and/or when the task given to employees working in a group is not clearly defined by the supervisor. Interpersonal conflict arises when there is proliferation of ideas, or interests between individuals working together, scarce resources, lack of corporation, personality clash or interference over whom to be the first to complete a specific task. While, procedural conflict occurs as a result of bureaucratic bottle neck or disagreement over the procedures to be followed in achieving the set organizational targets or goals. In otherwise, management of organizational conflict cannot be handled with the impression of one-size-fit-all