The founder of Mohism was Mozi, better known to his adherents as “Master Mo.” He was greatly revered and obeyed by his peers and followers for his philosophical insight. Philosophers have argued in depth about whether Mozi or Confucius, should be considered the father of philosophy because they both brought something beneficial to Chinese philosophy. Confucius brought the idea of harmony occurring only when each person has proper behavior in their family and society, while Mozi enforced the ideas of morality: being judged by consequences and that people’s actions can only be right if they benefit the majority. Meaning if a person, does good in their life that benefited them personally, even if their action is good, it will be called wrong or incorrect,
Yet, they were about attitudes and virtues that should be owned. The standard of chivalry, nonetheless, had considerably deeper roots. An author of Bloody Constraint, Theodor Meron said, “War and Chivalry in Shakespeare, states that the practitioners of chivalry, the knights, were expected to be cultivated gentlemen” (Meron, 2010). Besides, chivalry expected not only nobles, knights, and lords also to truly be men of virtue. The greatest important ideals were “honor, loyalty, courage, mercy, a commitment to the well being of the community and the avoidance of shame and dishonor” (Bloom, 2000).
In this essay, I will first describe the concept of spontaneity in both Mencian and Daoist views, and then I will argue that it is better to live spontaneously, in terms of psychological wellbeing and quality of decisions in life. From Mencian view, human nature (xing) is inherently good. Mencius 6A/2 states that humans’ good nature is like water’s nature to flow down, which means that even if we do bad things, our nature is still good. Mencius 2A/6 and 6A/6 name the goodness we all have as the “four hearts”, the heart of compassion, shame, deference (respect in 6A/6) and judgment. The four hearts are inherently present within us like part of us, and hence natural to us, as stated in 2A/6 and 6A/6.
The rituals, for Confucius, have an ‘impressive’ and an ‘expressive’ function. The impressive sense refers to individual moral enhancement: “rituals act to shape human beings – changing the way they feel and act”. Rituals, Confucius argues, thereby “create fluent human beings, sensitive to the dynamic tendencies of the social and cosmic
Isocrates and Aristotle both believed in the influence of sound rhetoric; furthermore, they insist upon a strategic education to further what they consider to be true rhetoric. The usefulness of rhetoric was undisputed. Sophists believed that educated men could convince the world of anything, and Aristotle and Isocrates knew that persuasion was applicable to every subject. The difference between men like Isocrates and Aristotle and the sophists was the search for truth. As a result of their philosophy behind rhetoric, they taught rhetoric differently.
He placed significant emphasis on education and study, as they are an integral part of his vision of building a society of harmony and advocating the conduct and dispositions of "junzi". In order to become a junzi, one had to learn the ways of Confucius' teachings. It is through education that the people learn to follow "li" (behavioral and ritual propriety) and treat others with "ren" (humaneness). He often contrasted the behaviors of a superior man and a petty person in his conversations with his disciples. "The noble person is inclusive, not exclusive; the petty person is exclusive, not inclusive.
Legalism, the state ideology of Qin Dynasty, sought the best way to build a power central government and emphasized on the importance of law over ethical morality. Through famous political reforms such as Lord Shang 's Reform during Zhanguo Period and the burning of books and burying of the scholars in Qin Dynasty, legalism challenged the popular ideologies Confucianism and forced the society to shift their focus on Li (courtesy) to Fa (law). With the fell of Qin and the rise of Han dynasty, Confucianism was appreciated again by Emperor Wu
He magnifies the great Indian spirit for its analytical frame of mind, its treatise towards spiritual poles of life. The essence of the spiritual sphere is not to renounce the terrestrial life but makes it perfect with the divine protection. Sri Aurobindo has experienced spirituality does not mean the mere corporeal existence, as a mortal vanity or accepting voluntary poverty. In a broad sense spirituality means human effort in making gigantic grasp of moral and divine values. Indeed it is a formidable task, but absolutely indispensable.
Cultural Relativism Culture plays a significant role in the determination of the proper engagement of an individual. Any given act is moral when the cultural dictates believe that the law is moral. Similarly, the immoral acts within a given culture when the societal norms do not conform to the actions. One only needs a cultural approval to understand whether a given action fits to be moral or immoral in the society. All the cultures around the world are equally justified in their beliefs.
Change based on utilitarian principles, for the good of the maximum people, is brought about when the rule of Kishkhinda is taken from Bali and given to Sugriva and that of Lanka from a power hungry Ravana to the better statesman Vibheeshana. Both Bali and Ravana were exceptional individuals in their own rights, learned and capable. So the question arises whether Rama’s compliance and complicity in their removal is ethical. The answer to that is when the moral fiber of a leader is corrupted it will result in the downfall of his organization also. So in the larger interest of the people it was necessary to bring down these two rulers.