Another example is Alexander’s policy of letting his conquered territories to govern themselves independently and not robbing them of their freedom. Through these merciful and honorable acts of Alexander, Plutarch manages to highlight Alexander’s greatest traits as leader as an individual, and simultaneously support his argument that Alexander is inherently good and exceptional among
Rule utilitarianism is more concerned with fairness and the law. The ultimate goal is to still satisfy and benefit the most people, but only through the most just and fairest means possible. A rule utilitarian seeks to benefit the most people but through the fairest and most just means available. The Deontiological ethical theory is that of duty, coming from the Greek word 'deon '. Duty as in that we are morally obligated to act in accordance with a certain set of principles and rules regardless of outcome.
Rawls believed that everyone in society should have had equal political rights, although social and economic inequalities existed, but only under the condition that they were to the maximum advantage of the least advantaged people in society. On the other hand, while philosopher Robert Nozick paid a generous tribute to the brilliance of Rawls’ philosophical construction, he provides a rejection to Rawls’ claims from a libertarian perspective. Libertarians have the desire to divide and limit power. That is, government will be limited generally through a written constitution limiting the powers that the people delegate to government (Boaz, 2015). Nozick stated that Rawls’ idea would have resulted in the restriction of free choice or forced distribution within the society.
Virtue is a quality, an action that enables each individual to do things well and correctly. It is considered the most appropriate action of each human being’s nature. It is about being the right kind of person and knowing what to do and how to act. Aristotle defines virtue as an excellence of human beings. However, there are some special virtues that are essential and play a very important part in society, specifically, political virtues.
Müge Neda Altınoklu Şenay 24 Mart 2016 Dilemma of Justice Equity rather than equality? The ancient concept of justice is fundamentally different from its modern meaning. In modern times, although the institutional meaning of justice means to judge crimes or to resolve conflicts between individuals according to the laws, and although in a less institutional sense, we speak of justice in a sense of social justice that assume the fair distribution of economic wealth, power, rights and duties in society, justice in antiquity was highly different from its modern meaning and first thought as a virtue that provide harmony within the ideal state. Ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle dealt with the question of justice and linked it to the important concepts such as equality, equity, fairness, proportionality, etc. Since the ancient Greeks had no legal system in its modern sense, the justice is exercised not in its normative sense, but in moral sense.
Albeit Aristotle and Locke lived 2,000 years apart, their periods in history were similar. Both eras were marked by wars, tyrannical figures, and political and social instability in ancient Greece and medieval England. However, there was one major difference in their epochs, religion. The Greeks practice polytheism, while Christianity was practiced in Europe during Locke’s time. The social and political environment influenced their opinions about ethics and morality.
been those belonging to the tradition of the Law of Nature. These show human rights depend directly on the natural order and are subject to a universal moral low, superior to positive law Present day human rights notions show human rights do not rest on nature but represent human requests historically defined and morally and politically justifiable by means of a non-naturalistic theory. History shows human rights were a vindication of freedom against the established power and as social economical demands. A clear understanding of the relationship between human rights and morality is best uncovered through the two main types of human rights moral theories the naturalistic and non-naturalistic one. 1.1.2.
Kingship, aristocracy, and polity are considered the ‘just’ forms because their focus is on the common good. Tyranny, deviation to kingship, is sole rule for the benefit only of the ruler. The deviation to aristocracy, oligarchy concerns itself with only the wealthy and the benefit of the rich. Democracy, deviation to polity, is exploited by the poor to serve only their own benefit. Aristotle explains
He relates positive meaning of liberty to the concept of distributive justice. Therefore Hayek’s objection for this kind of liberty is related to substantive equality. Actually, the issue in Hayek is obvious; equality and liberty is in contrast. If government tries to promote substantive equality under the name of social justice, then liberty is lost at the expense of substantive equality. When I say ‘substantive justice’, I mean concrete measures taken by institutions and governmental organizations which include equality of opportunity, material subvention for lesser inequality and legal attempts to prevent discrimination.