Each has its place in the hierarchy of the earth and all the relationships between people are subject to the same rules. In the understanding of Confucius ritual is a necessary rein to feelings and impulses that keeps them under control of the mind. Confucianism’s moral philosophy is based on the principle that man, being a small part of the whole of nature, a microcosm, is itself the general qualities of nature's order, justice, kindness, honesty. Therefore, it is enough for man to be trained and to be directed in order to improve. Perfection is given to them by example by their ancestors.
The teachings of Confucianism focused heavily of respecting and being kind to one another. Confucius and his disciples believed that people had a natural sense of empathy and that we owed it to one another to be kind to each other. This is a really big belief in modern society as well. We are taught as children that we should be kind to one another and care of one another. This has been a teaching throughout the centuries of human existence, and this isn’t just mentioned in the writings of Confucius and his disciples it’s also in the writing of other literary works as well.
Many of his teachings implemented filial piety, or in a broader sense, the relationships between man and society. Confucius often examines the duty of one man being ruled by a government. Yet, he focuses on a balance between individuals and government, suggesting that they maintain a symbiotic relationship. Confucius explores the role one plays in society, and vice versa. Both Thoreau and Confucius placed value on relationships.
Many of the points of Confucianism are applicable to life today while a plethora of them are inexcusable. One major gripe with Confucianism is the idea of harmony and filial piety and how it silences natural want and need to question the status quo. The relationship between father and son is supposed to be one in which the son lives his life to satisfy the wants and needs of his father even after death. In the Book of Analects it is that “When a person’s father is alive, observe his intentions, after his father is no more, observe his actions. If... he does then he is worthy to be called filial.” Dissent is not accepted and not believing what ones mentor may say prohibits someone for being a junzi.
I agree with this proposition. Mozi’s idea of 兼愛 jiān-ài universal concern suggested that everyone should love universally, a man should love another person as much as they love themselves, and love any human beings the same way, no matter is their parents, other’s parents or a stranger. It has been said that people should practice all-embracing love because the God, which is the 天 tiānnature:sky, would want them to do so, or else will be punished for practicing “discrimination”. On the other hand, 禮lǐritual, in Confucius, is particularly concerned about family hierarchies and one’s parents. Based on an important concept in Confucius, filial piety, respecting one’s parents is the fundamental virtue of a man (Analects 1.6) .
Legalism had a central argument on the legitimacy of political relationships and held that the law was more important than ethical morality (Peng, 2011). Legalism also had a first premise on human nature that people are born evil or amoral, therefore could only be governed through law and force (Peng, 2011). Legalism was endorsed by the state Qin during the Zhanguo period, through Lord Shang 's Reform. In BC 356, the Prime Minister Shang Yang initiated a legal reform to eliminate the power of hereditary aristocracy by abolishing feudalism and freeing the land into the hands of the people to encourage the populace to attend to agriculture. Shang Yang achieved such political reform by establishing laws to legalize these political changes on land ownership.
Thus, in fact, a history full of before-mentioned examples of opposition between the civil obedience and internal moral truth. Writers of the earlier and later Middle Ages connected conscience with the power to distinguish good from evil and identified it as "synderesis". St. Augustine viewed conscience as an innate ability that exhibits the moral law of God, thus, God-given. Augustine believed the capacity of reason to be considerably larger that it truly is. In accordance with Aristotle, the reason is innate and universal and, in turn, requires to be implemented in order to come to a recognition of right and
The doctrines of Mencius and Hsün Tzu are the part of the core and major, almost compulsory to the studying of Classical Confucianism. Some of the researchers found their differences, even called contradiction among discussing about human nature. Here comes the conclusion that Men Tzu and Hsün Tzu are two extremes, with completely different in their views about human nature. Nevertheless, we should refocus on the root of their philosophy, to determine rather they are different or not. Conversely, it can be concluded that Mencius and Hsün Tzu are similar base on their process of thinking, also their continuous advocation on self-cultivation and education.
Under these strict rules was how the Qin was able to unify China and standardise the language used. After the Qin Dynasty, it has become evident that legalism was very successful in helping to maintain order and controlling the country. So its philosophy was also adopted by the Han who used it to control its empire. Legalism provides a more practical approach to governing a country through the enforcement of law, deterring people from committing crime. Although China is not a legalist country, legalism has a profound impact on the legal system practiced by the government throughout Chinese history.
This web article has a tremendous amount of information about Confucius as well. The contribution of Confucius is the formulated code of righteousness. Confucius was a firm believer in living and governing by doing primarily nothing. He stayed away from talk about Gods. His quest for life was to restore social order in attempt to find the truth.