HEART FAILURE This is also referred to as Congestive heart failure. it is a clinical syndrome which occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficient amount of blood to meet the metabolic requirement of the tissue for oxygen. It can also result from structural cardiac abnormalities which impair the ability of the ventricle to fill or eject blood. The heart is weakened and cannot pump enough blood as strongly as before this implies that less oxygen is reaching the organs and muscles which can cause tiredness or shortness of breath. Etiology of cardiac failure: • Systemic hypertension-The most common cause in 75% of cases • Changes in the structure of the heart -changes in the valves causes volume and pressure overload • Disease conditions-valvular …show more content…
Pharmacological Treatment-Angiotensin converting enzymes inhibitor (help in systolic heart failure), Angiotensin receptor blocker, diuretics, aldosterone antagonist (people with systolic heart failure can live longer with this medication), inotropes (used in severe heart failure), digoxin. Surgery and medical devices-Coronary artery bypass surgery, Heart valve replacement surgery, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, biventricular pacing, ventricular assist devices, heart
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Congestive Cardiac Failure Keywords: Congenital, heart disease, cyanosis, oxygenated blood, deoxygenated blood, structural defects, systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, Mottling, Pallor, Pulmonary Rales 1. CYANOTIC CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES (CCHD) CCHD is a group of congenital heart diseases that occur due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the lungs and entering the systemic circulation or a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood entering systemic circulation which is caused by structural defects of the heart or any condition which increases pulmonary vascular
Right-sided heart failure is when the cardiac muscle on the right side of the heart becomes too weak to pump a sufficient amount of deoxygenated blood to the lungs. It is usually a complication of various conditions including lung diseases such as emphysema. This means that less oxygenated blood is taken from the lungs by the pulmonary veins and transported to the left side of the heart to then be pumped around the body. It can also produce a back-up of blood in the vessels within the body. This failure to pump sufficient blood to the lungs results in a build-up of fluid, which is known as oedema.
Congestive Heart Failure Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) is a clinical syndrome of worsening signs or symptoms of heart failure requiring hospitalization or other unscheduled medical care (Felker 2014). ADHF formerly known as congestive heart failure is one of the leading cause for hospitalizations in the United States. ADHF accounts for approximately 1 million hospitalizations per year in the United States (Arnold & Porepa 2012). According to the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry, patients hospitalized with ADHF have a substantial risk of in-hospital mortality and rehospitalization. Pathophysiology
Hypoxia: is the lack of adequate oxygen but hypoxic injury is due to low blood supply, which impacts the heart muscle (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 63-65 ). After the cessation of blood supply to the heart muscle, the contraction stops due to decline in mitochondrial phosphorylation. This leads to low ATP production, which causes an increase in anaerobic metabolism, producing ATP from glycogen. Even when that is used up, the sodium and potassium pump on the plasma membrane and the sodium-calcium exchange fail to function. All of this causes cellular swelling and also lead to vacuolation, formation of vacuoles.
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure, occurs when the heart no longer pumps blood as it should. With heart failure, the blood moves through the heart and the body at a slower rate. When this happens, the heart's pressure increases, and the heart could no longer pump oxygen and nutrients that the body needs. To avoid further damage, heart failure must be treated immediately. In line with this assertion, this paper will discuss the objective data, current treatments, diagnosis, social history, medical history, diagnostic studies, care plan, and client teaching of congestive heart failure.
Thesis; Dilated Cardiomyopathy can be caused by genetics, drug or alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, infection, or from a heart disease. Cardiomyopathy is a serious condition where the heart is abnormal. If left untreated, it is common that you could go into heart failure. Dilated cardiomyopathy is where the heart chambers are enlarged. It makes it harder for your heart to pump blood and for that blood to get to the rest of your body.
The disease is characterized by weakening of the ventricular myocardial muscle, resulting from elongation of myocytes accompanied by a vacuolar sarcoplasm and reduced myofibril density.  Weakening of the heart muscle results in a decreased stroke volume, leading to compensatory changes by a process called remodeling. The remodeling is characterized by elongation of myocytes by addition of sarcomeres, resulting in dilation -enlargement - of the heart while the wall thickness does not increase proportionally. This process of remodeling can spread to the other ventricle and to the atria.  The long-term effects of the remodeling are a further weakening of the heart muscle and it can eventually lead to heart failure.
The current recommendations for treatment of those with symptomatic heart failure are a combination of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers and diuretics to control blood pressure (Chojnowski, 2006, 38). Upon discharge and at follow-up appointments, the nurse should interview the patient about these medications. The discussion should include generic and trade names, times of administration, side effects of each medication and reasons for taking each one. If the nurse finds these medications are not ordered, she should discuss her findings with the health care provider promptly.
The left side will back up the fluid in the lungs to cause shortness of breath and the right side will back up the fluid in the abdomen, leg and feet that cause it to swell. These conditions can weaken the heart to cause heart failure. There many lifestyles to prevent the risk factors or even control congestive heart failure which include no smoking, staying physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, and reducing stress. The statistics show that over five million Americans are living with congestive heart failure each year. It can affect all ages from children to elderly, but most people with congestive heart failure are under the age of sixty years
However, there are a variety of medications that can be taken to help maintain the heart suffering stenosis such as beta blockers, diuretics and in some more advanced cases, surgery (Awtry,
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Also known as HCM, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is a cardiac disease that causes the ventricles of the heart to become abnormally thick and stiff. When the ventricles become thick and stiff, it causes them to not be able to pump enough blood, which can cause a blood as well as oxygen deprivation to the rest of the body. HCM can be genetically inherited as well as diseases like diabetes and thyroid diseases can make the odds of HCM contraction higher. HCM can cause sudden death as a result of fatal ventricular arrhythmias.
1. Medications. Medications to help treat a heart valve disease are usually focused on treating underlying disease and symptoms of this condition. These medications often include anti-hypertensive drugs, blood thinning drugs, medications for arrhythmias, medications for a coronary heart disease, and medications to treat heart failure. 2.
TERMINOLOGY CLINICAL CLARIFICATION • A rare, nonspecific inflammatory disease that causes aortoarterial stenoses/occlusion or dilatation 2 CLASSIFICATION • Several systems of classiAcation have been used o By distribution - The Japanese distribution - typically affects the thoracic aorta and aortic arch with its branches 1 - The Indian distribution- affects the abdominal aorta and the renal arteries 1 o By clinical manifestations phase - Acute/Active- the associated inflammation causes symptoms such as fatigue, night sweats, anorexia and malaise 2 1 - Chronic/Inactive- symptoms are associated with the organs involved 2• 1 o The 1994 International Conference on Takayasu Arteritis classification 3 - Type 1- involves the aortic branches - Type
There are usually two major types of heart failure. The Rright-sided failure, occurs when the right ventricle is not able to pump blood effectively into the pulmonary artery, causing increased volume and pressure in the venous system and causing peripheral edema. Left sided heart failure (CHF) which involves with decreased cardiac output and elevated pulmonary venous pressure may be acute, chronic, and mild to severe. It is further divided into systolic failure and diastolic failure. Systolic failure happens when the heart cannot contract forcefully during systole to eject adequate amount of blood into the circulation.