Research Paper On Congestive Heart Failure

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Congestive heart failure

Author: Dr. Simona Stiuriuc
Patogenie.Cauze and riscSemne and simptomeDiagnosticTratamentPrognostic factors.
Congestive heart failure

Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart can no longer cope with the metabolic demands of the body at normal venous pressure. The heart can not respond to increased body cererilee because:
- Increased heart rate, which is controlled by neural and humoral
- Increased ventricular contractility, secondary circulating catecholamines and autonomic control
- Increase preload, mediated constriction of venous capacitance and preservation of renal intravascular volume.

As the heart demands exceed normal compensatory mechanisms appear signs of congestive heart failure. These signs include
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However during stress of exercise, or fever may increase cardiac output normally decreases glomerular filtration rate and renal mechanisms for water and salt retention become active. In addition, ventricular filling pressure and atrial pressure and venous circulation upstream of the ventricle may be normal at rest but abnormal increases in stress.

Acute heart failure versus chronic.
Clinical manifestations of heart failure depend on the rate at which symptoms develop. If they have a sudden onset as it happens in acute myocardial infarction massive, rapid tachyarrhythmia or rupture occurs a valve endocarditis associated with a marked reduction in cardiac output. These phenomena are associated with symptoms caused by inadequate perfusion of the organs and bed acute venous congestion ventricle affected accordingly.
If anatomic abnormalities are gradually devel or if the patient survives an acute attack become operational some compensatory mechanisms especially cardiac remodeling and neurohormonal activation which enables that body to tolerate anatomical anomaly and reduced cardiac
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In heart failure increased flow extremities are warm and red and pulse pressure is normal or elevated.

Systolic versus diastolic heart failure.
Heart failure can be caused by abnormalities in systolic function leading to a defect in expulsion of blood or a diastolic function abnormality that leads to an abnormal ventricular filling. The most common form is associated with altered systolic inotropismului. Less commonly found is the ability ventricular diastolic failure to accept blood is altered. It may be the result of abnormal relaxation, short, incomplete or slow that may be transient as in acute ischemia or myocardial hypertrophy claim that restrictive cardiomyopathy secondary concentric or infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis.

The main clinical manifestations result from cardiac systolic failure and inadequate sodium retention and appear secondary, while the main clinical manifestation is insufficient diastolic ventricular filling pressure increase circulation and increased pressure upstream ventricle with pulmonary or systemic
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