The political theorists David R. Mayhew, Gary W. Cox, and Matthew D. McCubbins argue on how the US Congress functions. They focus on the members of Congress and their actions. The basis of disagreement between the theorists lies in what Congress members find of importance. Mayhew argues that members of Congress, primarily concern themselves with reelection, as such, any action taken only benefits that. Cox and McCubbins’, however, formulate that Congress functions on the basis of majority party control and unity. These arguments present different perspectives, however, they do have agreements amongst them. Overall, Mayhew presents an argument that is believable and shows the truth of members of the US Congress.
The definition of law is a system of rules that a community or country set to regulate the people apart of it. To make a law, the first step is to create a bill. A bill is proposal for a new law. Once the bill is created, it must make its way through congress. There are two stages for the bill to go through. The first one is called a committee consideration. In this stage, the bill is sent to a standing committee based on the subject unless it must do with taxes, then it would go to the house ways and means committee. If the bill does not get forgotten about, hearings get set up for government officials, lobbyists, and experts to share their opinions. After this is done, the bill goes on to stage two.
In The Outrage Industry, Berry and Sobieraj argue that the topic of media outrage is very multidimensional. Outrage is defined as avstrong reaction with anger, shock, or rage. In the political context, this could be how citizens react to a speech a politician has made, commentary between politicians aired on television, and or commentary between political journalists. America loves sensationalism. When the media broadcasts negatively charged reactions between political journalists or politicians, their ratings go up. Within the media industry, more ratings equal a higher profit. The research methods that Sobieraj and Berry use within their argument are quantitative and qulalitative.
Isabel Allende’s short story, “And of Clay Are We Created,” has a similar presentation of humanity compared to Matea Gold and Maggie Farley’s article, “World Trade Center and Pentagon attacked on Sept. 11, 2001.” In both stories humanity is seen to look for answers from the media. For example, in “And of Clay Are We Created,” humanity is seen to cling on to hope when ever Lily was seen on tv. For them, Lily was a symbol of hope that the media explioted. Another example is, in “World Trade Center and Pentagon attacked on Sept. 11, 2001,” when people saw the learned of the attacks, it was through the media. The people of America were watching through the media to gain an understanding of this situation. In these stories humanity is seen to
The act of influencing legislation in government is called “lobbying”. The right to lobby is protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution. It states “Congress shall make no law abridging the right of the people to petition the government for a redress of grievances” (APUS, n.d). Besides, this is considered to be part of the Freedom of Assembly and Petition Clause in the First Amendment. This essay will discuss the impact of lobbyist on legislation in Washington, DC and the amount of dollars spent to influence federal policies.
The types of choices that congressman have to make when it comes to oversight are often moderated by the different costs and benefits from engaging in congressional oversight. In previous sections the way members make decisions on congressional oversight whether to exercise or which technique to use was discussed. McCubbins and Schwartz highlight how difficult this process is by distinguishing general neglect from congress versus rational behavior. Rationality in this area makes it so that members can actually perform their other functions, which have higher priority so they can keep their jobs (McCubbins and Schwartz 1984).
Taken Hostage tells the story of the Iran hostage crisis lasting from November of 1979 to the day Reagan’s inauguration. During this period of time, sixty six Americans were held in captivity by Students Following the Line of Imam after the United States allowed the Shah to undergo medical treatment amidst the Iranian revolution. Americans, after a tough decade of inflation, gas shortages, lack of trust in the government, and the defeat in Vietnam were yet again brought into a situation in which required their complete faith that the Carter administration would save the captives. The hostage crisis was a complete shock to the American people in addition to the heightened tensions because of economic decline, government mistrust, and energy
When the three branches of government were created a system of “check and balances” was built into the Constitution in order to keep one branch of government from becoming too large and too powerful. Actions that are taken by one branch of government affect the other branches, thereby introducing “oversight”. The intelligence community has both internal and external oversight. The internal oversight comes from the CIA Inspector General that is embedded within the intelligence community. The external oversight comes from both the executive and legislative branches of the government. The legislative branch, or Congress, provides this checks and balances through the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence.
Dating back to its inception Congress “has never been a place for paupers (Lightblau, 5).” With each change in the country, the United States Congress rarely deviated away from its long-standing tradition of having wealthy, white men heavily represented in both chambers. Individuals who were elected ranged from “plantation owners, industrialists, ex- Wall Street financiers and Internet executives (Lightblau, 5).” Research conducted shows that “the typical member of Congress is worth more than nine times the typical voter that puts them in Washington (Thompson, 2).” The startling wealth gap explains why there is a disconnect between a Congressperson and its constituents. However, when discussing the wealth gap that is present between the two groups other factors that influence the gap are left out of the discussion. Factors like race, gender, education and other relevant personal factors are aspects that impact the wealth disparity seen among a Congressperson and the average person in the United States.
In this article, the author examined the interactions between the Christian Coalition and the Republican Party. Little is known about the linking between parties and organized groups. The Christian Coalition is an important player in Republican politics and it acts like an interest group. The author lists three models used to explain group influences. The first is called electoral mobilization. It says that social movement organizations influence legislators to assure them that their supporters will vote for them on Election Day. The second is called financial clout. It argues that donating money to members of Congress, this attempts to shape how a policy is viewed and how the legislation is produced. It could also signal policy preferences to legislators, because of this donation. The last model is called policy expertise. It argues that interest groups and social movement organizations are able to influence legislators based on their ability to provide them with reliable information. This information is about constituents and expertise in certain policies. There was a survey in which the author designed for local leader’s perceptions of the Christian Coalition. Two variables were included. They were perceptions about Christian Coalition influence of the respondent’s county and perceptions about Christian Coalition influence with the county chair’s state. This applied both to the Republican Party. What I found interesting was that 59 percent of respondents believed that the Christian Coalition had little to no effect in their county party organization and 52 percent stated that the group had influence in their party’s state organization. One purpose of the Christian Coalition is that they get their members to go out and vote. This has indeed helped the Republican candidates win their seats in close congressional races. The Christian Coalition also uses grassroots as their key power, because they motivate their people to vote.
Over the last decade congressional polarization has increased at alarming rates causing Washington insiders and outsiders alike to worry about the future of American politics and democracy. While Democrats and Republicans on The Hill cannot agree on much, they both acknowledge that the increasing level of polarization in Washington is crippling the entire legislative branch, thereby undermining the greatest democracy in the world. Numerous public opinion polls, over the last few years, have shown that the vast majority of the American public, regardless of party affiliation, disapproves of, and feels unrepresented by, the extremely polarized legislature (Gallup, 2016). However, year after year, despite how many Americans become disgruntled
The extreme partisan polarization and the hostility between Democrats and Republicans that we see in Congress is the product of a long evolution starting in the mid-1960s that has rendered the system a low-functioning machine. In her examination of how the ideological gulf now separating the two major parties developed, Sinclair offers some insights into how today 's intense partisan competition affects the political process, lawmaking and national policy.
I. There has always been a negative perception regarding the city of Washington D.C. It is truly one city that is universally hated for one principal reason. It is the center of American politics. Mark Leibovich truly illuminates this in his book, This Town. His take on Washington showcases how the democratic institutions that have been put in place by our founding fathers during the beginning of our nation are the key components that politicians from both sides of the aisle use to create political gridlock. A period that was supposed to be a “time of hope and rebirth,” with President Obama’s arrival into the oval office actually resulted in political polarization that had struck everyone in Washington and around the country (34). Leibovich
In America, Media bias is everywhere, in the United States all the information that an average American received through everyday sources, the news was most likely processed through the media and told through a biased point of view, when the media gets their hands on news if it is important then it probably won’t be talked about or downplayed no matter the source like in the newspaper, radio, television, movies, as well as other outlets that the media uses, the media only seems to share the news that they find interesting, even then the media would most likely have changed the story, in what they say is just tweaked news, what actually happened and what really happened would be two different stories, also the story would be told from one person