Some of the proteins are established to be included in mitophagy but not in common autophagy. Xenophagy is the process by which a cell directs autophagy against pathogens. The particular process of securing cells from the destruction is called Xenophagy. It has been widely affected for some of bacterial infections. It is given the powerful role of autophagy in tumor suppression.
pRL 27 plasmid map. tetAP: Plasmid promoter tnp: tn5 transposase element oriR6K: Origin of replication- allows replication in new bacterial cell aph: Kanamycin resistance oriT: Origin of transfer- allows transfer of plasmid elements into new cell The E. coli WM2672 plasmid also contains genes for kanamycin resistance. This was used as a selective marker because if the Serratia accepted the plasmid then it will also have kanamycin resistance. The plain LB plates were used as an experimental control; The wild type, with prodigiosin production/no plasmid. The bacteria was plated in mid-log phase, this was done for two possible reasons.
The non-specific resistance of gram-negative bacteria is recognized as a limitation in the treatments of infections of these organisms. However, the general pattern of resistance is well known and stable, so that drugs are prescribed of which the infecting organism are not inherently resistant. Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics usually but not always after exposure to the antibiotics, this type of resistance results from changes in the bacterial genome. In bacteria, acquired resistance is driven by two genetic processes, which are mutation and selection that are
Rather than just breeding the two organisms together with the desirable traits to reinforce the genes that are already there, the organisms have to be genetically engineered. The largest part of the whole idea of genetically engineered organisms is how the genes are added into the new plants. There are six steps to the process of genetically engineering organisms. The first of which is the isolation of the specific gene that they would like to extract and use in the creation of another organism. Scientists have to study the genetic makeup of the organism and isolate the specific gene that has the desired genetic characteristic, this process is also called mapping.
This leaves us with concerns about whether these processes are ethically correct and whether it is appropriate to use these organisms as a means of producing things such as pharmaceuticals. Through editing an organism’s DNA that organism can adapt a new trait. By changing the genotype of the organism, the physical outward appearance —or its phenotype—can also be altered. Under the correct circumstances, a new gene can be added into the DNA of a cell; this gene will be transcribed and translated into an amino acid string. Scientists use this type of technology to produce things like antibodies, insulin and
Abstract The transformation principle suggests that bacteria use DNA as their genetic material and are able to exchange their genetic material via a process of transformation. Griffith had theorised the concept of the transformation principle using two strains of bacteria and studied their ability to recombine. Avery and MacLeod followed his studies and suggested DNA was sensitive to DNase, and that the enzyme would destroy the bacteria's ability to exchange genetic material and transform into a new strain. This was then tested in the labs at Wits by second year students where they studied the transformation of ampicillin sensitive E. coli to ampicillin resistant E. coli. The results obtained there were similar to those of Avery and MacLeod,
This is done by first harvesting and propagating cells of the patients or other sources in the lab. Then introducing the therapeutic gene into the cells through the direct gene transfer method. And finally, returning the newly modified cells into the patient. Both the methods have certain advantages and disadvantages. As the direct gene transfer method has the advantage of simplicity, however due to the over simplified strategy, this method does not allow for advanced manipulation and control over the therapeutic gene.
Then, animal biotechnology is that animals can be used as "bioreactors" to produce important medical proteins such as antibodies (Thieman & Palladino, 2013). It also utilizes as model organisms for the basic research as gene "knockout" experiment which disrupt a gene to observe what functions are affected. Next, forensic biotechnology is the study of DNA fingerprinting which detects a unique DNA pattern to convict criminals. It also uses in paternity cases, tracking, and confirming the spread of the organisms such as tuberculosis and E.coli (Thieman & Palladino, 2013). Bioremediation is the process of using biotechnology to clean up environment pollution, which causes of industrial progress.
To transfer genes, scientists use yeast cells instead of bacteria because yeast cells are eukaryotic and they can translate genes from other eukaryotes. To transfer DNA, a vector is used in genetic engineering is a carrier. Bacteria contain vectors called plasmids, which are small circular pieces of DNA within the bacteria. An example in medicine would be diabetes. Before genetic engineering was common, doctor’s cures diabetes with animal insulin obtained from farm animals, but that used to cause allergic reactions in some patients.
Microbiome studies worldwide have been started with the aim of understanding the function that these symbionts play and their effect on human health[2, 3]. Specifying the definition of the human microbiome has been complicated by confusion about terminology: for example, “microbiota” (the microbial taxa associated with humans) and “microbiome” (the catalogue of these microbes and their genes) are often used interchangeably. In addition, the term “metagenomics” originally referred to the characterization of total DNA, although now it is increasingly being applied to studies of marker genes such as the 16S rRNA gene. More fundamentally, however, new findings are leading us to question the concepts that are central to establishing the definition of the human microbiome, such as the stability of an individual's microbiome, the definition of the OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) that make up the microbiota, and whether a person has one microbiome or many. In this review, we cover progress towards defining the human microbiome in these different