Conjugation In Microorganisms Essay

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Q1- transduction , transformation , and conjugation in microorganisms . Give a definition and main differences with example .
- Transduction : it`s a process of transform the genetic material in bacterial cell where the transform of genetic material occur by virus (bacteriophage) , where the virus transfer the genetic material from the host cell to another host cell , where the virus will initiate another cycle of infection . example : prophages , GTA ( gene transfer agent) .
- Transformation : it’s the process when bacterial cell are able to uptake the free DNA from their environment example : B. subtilis is an important for bacterial genetic study but they are not naturally competent , and the transform of these stain is possible only by highly unnatural means such as protoplast electroportion .
- Conjugation : the process where bacterial cell transfer of plasmid and possibly genomic sequences from one cell to another cell by using a special structure called pilus . example : homoplasmid segregants , Bacteria can transfer genetic material, and thus drug resistance, to other bacteria via conjugation..

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They also can act as carrier for the dissemination of other MGE like transposons and integrons. Natural plasmids most of the time form the basis for the new molecular development of tools for organisms that lack basic genetic systems for manipulation and functional anatomy. So the development of strategies and a clear explanation of mechanisms of host and microbe interactions in the gut , microbiota need the development of molecular tools which primary in the characterization of species. Plasmids and other MGE associated with the gut microbiota will provide a source of genetic material to develop the tools to transfer

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