Acid rain is any atmospheric precipitation that is more acidic than usual. Generally, acid rain is from natural or industrial sources. Water, H20, has a pH of 7.0. Normal, unpolluted rain has a pH of 5.6. Normal rain water is slightly acidic, because carbon dioxide dissolves into the water, forming a weak carbonic acid.
The green surface or also called “world’s lung” and the eruptions of the volcanoes they release some chemicals into the atmosphere, but the one who most affects the human society is the Acid Rain. Acid gasses are produced when fossil fuels, like oil or petroleum are burnt in power stations, factories or in our homes. The gases that come out from factories are called SO2 (Sulphur dioxide), and the gases that come from cars and trucks are called and N02 (nitrogen dioxide). Nitrogen dioxide creates nitric acid, sulphur dioxide creates sulphuric acid. Car and truck exhaust fumes are also acid gasses.
Such chemical gases react with oxygen, water, and other elements to create mild solutions of nitric and sulfuric acids. Winds might increase the range by which these acidic solutions throughout the atmosphere. When acid rain has reached Earth, it courses through the surface of Earth in runoff water, submits itself into water systems, and penetrates into the ground. "Acid Rain Facts, Acid Rain Information, Acid Rain Pictures, Acid Rain Effects - National
Atmospheric acid deposition in form of rain, fog or snow was identified as major environmental problems for the countries in Europe, East Asia and North America (Bouwman et al., 2002). Normal precipitation pH is slightly acidic due to the presence of natural CO2 in the atmosphere However, a rainfall that has a pH value of less than 5.6 is considered as acid rain (Stephen KL, 1999). The recorded pH of the rainfall in Western Europe often range from 4.5 to 4 (Yadav RC, 2012) The main components of acid precipitation are sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide dissolved in rainwater. When these components are present in the air and dissolved in water during rain, they forms various acids (Fig. 3) ( Wondyfraw, 2014).
Natural rainfall usually has pH value between 5 to 5.6. Acid rain refers to rainfall with pH < 5.0. Oxides of sulfur are emitted into the atmosphere as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, petroleum refining, copper smelting and cement manufacture. About 80 % of oxides of sulfur come from burning of fossil fuels. Sulfur dioxide (SO2), through series of chemical reactions gets converted into SO3.
Air pollution is the root cause of acid rain, and with power plants releasing massive amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides when fossil fuels are burned, we are adding more flame to the effects of acid rain. According to (http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-a-f/china-nuclear-power.aspx) China has 38 nuclear power reactors in operaion, about 20 under construction, and more about to start construction. China’s electricity is mostly produced from
Meteorological factors will make air pollution levels change. Sometimes in the still air pollutant dispersion and unfavorable weather conditions, air pollution may reach high levels. This is for people with heart or respiratory illnesses may cause adverse effects. The following is an introduction to some air pollutants: (a) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a strong pungent odor. The formation of sulfur dioxide during combustion of fossil fuels and processing of sulfur minerals.
To illustrate, air pollution is a jumble of solid elements and gases in the air, it caused by car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen, and mold bacteria. However, ozone and gas is a major part of air contamination in cities. All of these materials affect the nature in several way and lead to problems for the plants and trees. During the burning of fossil fuels, harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are liberated into the atmosphere. When it rains, the water droplets integrate with these air pollutants, so it becomes acidic and then drops on the ground in the shape of acid rain ("Environmental pollution," n.d.).
Carbon monoxide from car exhausts and sulphur dioxide from the combustion of coal are the examples of primary pollutant. Further pollution can arise if primary pollutants in the atmosphere undergo chemical reactions. The resulting compounds are called secondary pollutants. For example, photochemical smog. These harmful substances may increase the number of mortality or serious illness or may cause present or potential hazard to human health.