After all, the novel sets out to explain the origin of Antoinette’s madness through her own narrative, something she was denied in Jane Eyre. The definition of madness is quite critical in Wide Sargasso Sea as Antoinette is premeditated to lose her sanity due to the original plot in Jane Eyre. There are two types of madness discussed in the novel. The first type is madness as an inherent mental illness. This is carried over from Jane Eyre, and described to be the underlying cause of Antoinette’s madness.
Bremner stated that human bodies react to situations that can lead to hazardous forms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Bremner concluded that PTSD can cause depression, nightmares, flashbacks, and lack of memory. This type of stress is very unhealthy and can change the way that the brain develops and functions. The data is credible and has a significant amount of information that helps in explaining why stress affects the brain. The author provides many specific examples that helped the reader understand the main points.
Repression in Freud and Freyd Freud describes repression as the act of blocking unacceptable urges, but this phenomenon is not that simple. Ever since he popularized using repression to describe cases of abnormal forgetting, alternative theories of repression have been formulated. In contrast to Freud, Freyd theorizes that repression occurs when someone is abused by a close caregiver, and to survive, they must repress their memories of the abuse to maintain a relationship with their caregiver. Her theory diverges from Freud’s as she is more focused on the abuse causing the repression while Freud is more concerned about the ramifications of acting upon taboo desires. Likewise, both authors use survival as a core concept in their theories.
`How does Chekhov attempt to develop the play as a tragedy in spite of having comic characters and dialogues? The play “The Cherry Orchard” by Anton Chekhov most of the time viewed as a tragedy, although Chekhov himself stated that it was meant as a comedy. The play was written during Chekhov’s last years, when he was fatally ill. He was continuously thinking of Russia and how it was changing in a negative way. The overtaking of bourgeoisie and inequalities between the rich and the poor affected Chekhov greatly and it caused him to include these points in his play.
The text that this essay is based on is “The Cherry Orchard” by Anton Chekhov. It is a play from 1903 about a group of former serfs, a family of Russian aristocrats and their financial downfall after the emancipation declaration. It follows the interactions between those that used to be owners and those who used to be owned as they attempt to save the family from bankruptcy and save their cherry orchard. The play was initially meant to be a comedy but the majority of its performances are viewed as tragedies, which brings me to the focus of this essay, which is to identify the aspects of the play that made Chekhov consider it a comedy. To do this I’m going to look at the literary and contextual factors that, combined, could lead me to Chekhov’s
Debra Crown once wrote that, “Arrogance is an illusion of superiority one perpetrates upon their self. Some may ultimately find their way through the illusion, but only after many losses.” One flaw that is seen throughout literature is narcissism, which is a personality disorder in which one views themselves superior to the reality in which they live. Within her book, Wuthering Heights, Emily Bronte constructs the personality of a narcissist through the characters Heathcliff and Edgar Linton, which guide their choices that in time will leads to their own destruction and loss of mortality. Narcissism is a medical diagnosis in which one is too preoccupied in an alternative world to see the reality around themselves (Campbell). People with a narcissistic personality disorder believe that “they are superior, special, or unique and expect others to recognize them as such” (Narcissistic Personality).
In literature, loss of innocence refers to an adolescent character who experiences an event that leads to a greater awareness of pain and suffering which profoundly reshapes their life. The loss of a loved one at a young age can cause disruption and irreparable damage to the innocent mind. After a tragedy of losing a loved one, the naïve mind is ill-equipped to deal with the loss, which can cause it to spiral out of control. Esther and Holden are two fictional characters who are both unfortunate enough to experience this trauma during their adolescence and both suffer the negative mental consequences. Throughout The Bell Jar and The Catcher in the Rye, Plath and Salinger use their protagonists’ to demonstrate the motif of loss of innocence, caused by tragic events in their youth, to teach the reader that buried childhood trauma can have a negative impact on mental health.
Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History (1996) by Cathy Caruth is an essential reference in the trauma field. Cathy Caruth is one of the key figures in contemporary trauma theory. She has famously redefined it as “the event is not assimilated or experienced fully at the time, but only belatedly, in its repeated possession of the one who experiences it” (4). It re-surfaces in a fragmented form as traumatic flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and repetitive re-enactments. Trauma becomes part of the survivor’s identity, and is in Freud’s terms, "acted out" (Remembering, Repeating 36), as if it happens in real time.
1.1 Scope of the study This study will point up the abuse of power and the relationship between genders by analyzing the heroine in English play and the heroine in Arabic play. This analysis spotlights on the Negative Face, the negative Face Threating Acts attacking the level of the hearer by using the theory of politeness from Face management 's approach. 1.2 Objectives of the study The main objectives of this study is to explore how the negative face which used by the wife in " Hedda Gabler" by Ibsen and by the mother in Fathia E-Assal 's " The night before the wedding"/lajlt a:lhna/.Moreover, this study aims to explain how power is abused by the heroine in both plays. Furthermore, this paper is going to glimmer the Face Threating
He blames the current state of Russia on the aristocratic serf-owners, or the landowning class. He advocates for political change and insightfully illustrates, “behind each cherry tree in the orchard, behind each leaf, behind each trunk, there are human beings looking out at you…your mother, you, your uncle don’t even notice that you are living in debt,…at the expense of those people who weren’t allowed to go further than your threshold” (33). Trofimov believes that the serf-owning bureaucracy has trapped both the serf-owners and peasantry class in the past. His solution is that, “to start to live in the present, we must begin to atone for our past, to finish with it” (33). Trofimov is prevailing and optimistic.