Ertmer's Theory Of Constructivism In The Classroom

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The content: knowledge skills and attitude we want children to learn; differentiating content requires that students are pretested so the teacher can identify the students who do not require direct instruction. The process: varying learning activities / strategies to provide appropriate methods for students to explore the concepts; important to give students alternative paths to manipulate the ideas embedded within the concept (different grouping methods, graphic organizers, maps, diagrams, or charts) (Thwaites 2017) in class power point presentation.
The product :varying the complexity of the product that students create to demonstrate mastery of the concepts; students below grade level may have different performance expectations than students
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The most critical factor is the arrangement of stimuli and consequences within the environment Ertmer & Newby (2013)
• How Constructivism impacts learning
Curriculum- Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving.
Instruction–Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students.
Assessment–Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress (Walden University
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Both learner and environmental factors are critical to the constructivists, as it is the specific interaction between these two variables that creates knowledge. In other words constructivism is student centered and teachers could use this knowledge to transfer information utilizing the following areas: According to Dixon and Matalon (2009), the U.S. definitions on the Individual with Disabilities Act (IDEA) 2000 report that there are change in some criteria to special education and inclusiveness these are as

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