Constructivism And Social Constructivism

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2.2.1 Constructivism Social Constructivism is one of international relations approach. This approach challenged the rationalism and positivism of neorealism and neoliberalism. One of constructivism character is its emphasis on the importance of normative as well as material structures, the role of identity in shaping political action and on the mutually constitutive relationship between agents and structures (Burchill et al. 2005: 188). The term “constructivism” was first introduced by Nicholas Onuf in his book World in Our Making. According to Viotti and Kauppi, Constructivism differs from neo-realist and neo-liberal who believes that identities and interest are given. Constructivist argues that states do not simply react to their environment but dynamically engage it. Hence, not the only environment influences the behavior of the actors, but also do the actors affect the environment surrounding them. To constructivist, ideas are important, particularly when it takes structural form where in which this structure can influence the behavior of both state and non-state actors. Constructivist had re-imagined the social as a constitutive domain, reintroducing history as realm of empirical inquiry and emphasized the variability of political practice. It has also taken the idea that states are more than just a system, it is a society that has pushed this idea to a new level of theoretical and conceptual sophistication. In its journey in becoming one of the international
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