Constructivism In Vygotsky And The Zone Of Cognitive Development

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Nowadays, constructivism is considered as a vital issue in various disciplines, especially instructional design (Can, 2009; Powell & Kalina, 2009). Ertmer and Newby (2013) pointed out this theory is contrasted with behaviorism and cognitivism. Generally, Vygotsky supported Piaget’s work about learners’ activities in the cognitive development. However, he did not agree that maturation itself enough of a way to allow learners to achieve higher knowledge and skills in their cognitive development. According to Vygotsky’s theory, learners’ knowledge is socially constructed through language (Powell & Kalina, 2009; Zhou & Brown, 2014). As highlighted by Can (2009), language is a useful tool to transmit information from the social environment to the human mind in the internalization process.
In Vygotsky’s theory, there are two zones to describe how learning occur: the Zone of Current Development (ZCD) and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). The ZCD represents a level or a skill that a learner is able to achieve independently. Compared to the ZCD, the ZPD describes learner’ s potential ability in a limitation of their independence, and the learner needs to be supported by More Knowledge Others (MKO) (Harland, 2003). There is a significant difference between what learners are able to learn or to do by themselves and what they can achieve with the assistance of other people who have greater knowledge than them. It is clear that students need assistance from MKO in their

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