It is difficult to generalize the findings relating to the outcomes for all students service learning experiences. Thus, there exists a need for counselor educators to adapt these findings to the relevance of developing service-learning initiatives that fits their students’
Wallace argues that actual thinking and education involves gaining a conscious awareness, often that those around us are in reality just as important as we are. So while people are more likely to attribute behavior to another’s personality, especially if it’s negative, this is far from accurate. This is a big piece to Gilbert’s model if people do not use controlled think or thinking that is effortful, conscious, and intentional (textbook, p.65) to see someone’s situational attribution they are misinterpreting information. This occurs automatically and even involuntary, which is why Wallace referred to it as a default setting. However, even if initially people are making attributions to someone’s internal state, they can change this way of thinking and recognize outside situations.
Personality is related to a personal disposition to feel anxious in general or in the particular context of language learning. In the case of the second variable this can be related to the extent in which simple activities in the mother tongue become more difficult in the foreign language, which considerably demands learners’ time and cognitive resources. The last factor might be related to unrealistic expectations about their rate of progress, especially when they compare their proficiency level with others who have progressed more. Díaz-Ducca (2014) presented the affective variable of confidence as part of a Virtuous Cycle that was aimed at encouraging a student’s class participation, and consequently, his instances of exercising oral production. This acknowledges the role that participation in the speaking activities has in relation to language learning.
On one hand, there is a belief that professionalization is essential to moving the field from a marginal status (whether real or perceived) to one that wields more influence in society. At the same time, some very basic concerns must be addressed about adult education becoming so absorbed with the elements of professionalization that this process will ultimately produce a narrowly defined mainstream that excludes many of the diverse voices of those people who engage in its practice" . The approach to adult learning and education can be made, therefore, from different perspectives which are oriented either towards personal or societal development. The second part of our paper is concerned with adult education following andragogy principles as defined by Knowles where we analyse the results of the survey addressing employed students from different forms of enrolment: full attendance, low attendance, and distance
Introverts act as mavericks, tending to converse with others with deeper connections whereas extroverts form more superficial connections with a greater number of people, which seems almost quixotic. It 's especially important to consider the arguments constructed in this book in the frame of a child. Introverted children should be exposed gradually to the world of extroversion, but should not be pushed past their limits otherwise they may "feel emotionally threatened" and associate school with negative emotions. Instead, they should focus on their deepest interests and try to attend a school that suits their personalities, with understanding teachers an integral element of the
Some researchers recognize the limitations. One thing of concern is timing of milestone some may be more advances while others maybe not in the same category. It doesn’t have to be age wise. Another criticism faced is his portrayal of children especially in the pre-operational stage he focused on what they could not do instead of what they could. Especially in the first two stages in cognitive development.
This however fails to recognise the agency of the learner in their ability to contribute to the “culture” of the classroom and this too must be considered. Furthermore he fails to recognise that the content selection or subject selection also contain implicit meanings within, especially when considered curricula like curriculum for social adaptation and social reconstruction and curriculum for academic rationalism which are chosen for the skills and values that they offer to learners (Eisner 1985). Often these curricula have been designed specifically for their implicit curriculum and ability to produce what society deems valuable and necessary. Ultimately the implicit curriculum, perhaps because of its potential of inadvertent damage, must be considered when engaging in curriculum study, simply because it is so important in the education of a child in terms of becoming a functioning adult in
However, that is not to say that academics are an afterthought. The teaching of academics is where students can find their passions. In the search for a student’s areas of interest, I believe they are much more likely to pursue a topic if they have a positive belief in themselves. The mental and academic performance of a student go hand-in-hand, which is why, in my opinion, standardized tests are not the answer. The pressure they place on the children, and the educational community at large, can have repercussions that adversely impact the development of the
Vygotsky believed that social interaction plays an important role in cognitive development. He stressed the idea that a community greatly contributes to the “process of “making meaning”” (McLeod). He believed that a child’s development primarily appears socially. Children use what they learn from their parents and other people. Children see and hear the interaction between their parents and use that as an example for their own development.
As a result children are often seen as having 'additional support needs ' when there is a discrepancy between what a system of schooling ordinarily provides and what the child needs to support their learning. Thus the professional focus tends to be on what is 'additional to or different from ' the provision which is generally available, rather than on what can be done to make schooling more accessible for all (Florian,