consumer believes that attitude object possesses various attributes and that the specific behaviour will lead to specific outcome (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2009). The affective component of an attitude is consumer’s emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. The conative component of the attitude is concerned with the likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way. In marketing and consumer research this component is frequently treated as an expression of the consumer’s intension to buy (Schiffman and
Alternatively, they may control from continually visiting the store and their shifting tendency may eventually reduce the profit margin of the concrete stores. Therefore, assessing attitudes of target consumers towards online shopping is essential. As a result, the group which is more prone to a positive attitude should be the target market (Shwu-Ing, 2003). Consistent with the study of Armstrong and Kotler, (2000), “a person’s shopping choices are influenced by four main psychological factors: motivation, perception, learning and beliefs and attitude”. In other words, attitudes are shaped through motivation and perception that influence decisions making of consumers.
In the social psychological literature attitudes are learned i.e. evaluations of objects developed through experience. For example, it is generally agreed that humans are born without predetermined attitudes toward targets, except perhaps a few stimuli closely related to survival (e.g., aversions to pain and cold, attractions to breast milk and the human face). Instead, evaluations of the multitude of stimuli in our environments are formed over the years, on the basis of both personal experiences and information from others. (Olson, 1998) An attitude is a subjective experience involving an evaluation of something or somebody.
2.4.1 Attitudes The study of attitudes has become an important aspect in both the arena of advertising and consumer behavior. A possible reason behind this is that it helps predicting consumer behaviors such as purchase decision, brand choice and evaluation (De Mooij, 2010; Leon, Schiffman, Kanuk, & Hansen, 2012; Mitchell & Olson 1981; Schiffman & Kanuk, 2004; Solis, 2011). It is stated that anything that an individual has an attitude or internal evaluation is regarded as an attitude objective (Solomon et al., 2010). Attitudes also to a great extent influence an individual’s decision-making (Fill, 2009) and purchase behavior (Leon, Schiffman, Kanuk, & Hansen, 2012). Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) also suggested that consumers’ preference depends
While the self-concept is the image that the individual has – or would like to have – of him and he conveys to his entourage. These two concepts greatly influence the individual in his choices and his way of being in everyday life. And therefore also his shopping behavior and purchasing habits as consumer. In order to attract more customers, marketers should trying to develop an image and a personality that conveys the traits and values or desired of consumers they are targeting.Because consumers do not just buy products based on their needs or for their intrinsic features but they are also looking for products that are consistent and reinforce the image they have of themselves or they would like to have. An individual’s personality also affects his buying behaviour.
Consumer is induced significantly if he is looking for the quality and prices of the products. Purchase attitude can also be build up by product evaluation and brand recognition (Rai, 2013). Consumers in all over the world are attracted towards the brand and products which are emotionally attached with their behaviors. Studies found that emotional attachments put a huge influence on the customers and their buying behavior as people tend to associate themselves with the
Advertisement, a method to increase product sales or to serve as a campaign regarding issues such as global warming, aimed to target the attitude of individuals. Attitude is defined as an assessment of an object of thought (Bohner & Dickel, 2011). It composes of three elements: affect refers to the emotions and feelings, behaviour refers to actions and statement, and cognitive is the beliefs and thoughts about the object (Breckler, 1984). Thus, advertisements drive individuals to form or change an attitude and make a conscious evaluation to accept or reject the product (Crano & Prislin, 2006) done through persuasion (Bohner, Erb & Siebler, 2008). Persuasion takes in the information and processes it either systematically or superficially.
BEHAVIOURAL PSYCHOLOGY AND BUSINESS ADVERTISEMENT: EVALUATION & SUGGESTION Virtually all marketing communications (especially advertising) endeavor to influence customers ' brand inclinations by displaying positive traits of product brand or discussing product brand with positive images. Observably, there is a surge of studies proposing that messages can incorporate some negative information about a brand and yet, be more viable than if no unfavourable (or negative) information were introduced (Pechmann, 1992). Advertising is a standout amongst the most critical business exercises in the contemporary commercial environment. Organizations trust that customers will buy their products because of the advertisements, which convey messages about
Target and desire Person has their individual target or desire to be achieved. It is acceptable that perceiver perception influenced by his/her target or desire that expressed in form of attention 7 From the explanation above, the factors of perception can be influenced by several factor. Each person will have their own perception because they have different way, target, and desire, environment and point of view. That is way, perception one person