2. Literature Review 2.1 Theoretical Background 2.1.1 The Earth and its Atmosphere In the early twentieth century, a young German scientist named Alfred Wegener, His theory was motivated by the observation that the continents, particularly South America and Africa, seemed to be pieces of a global jig-saw puzzle that had somehow been pulled apart (Asrat, 2006). He reasoned that all land masses were once connected in a gigantic supercontinent he named "Pangaea". The northern part of Pangea is commonly called Laurasia and the southern part Gondwanaland. A single supercontinent that broke apart to form the modern continents is called the theory of continental drift.
preexisted as different forms. Evolution tries to show that everything evolved from something that existed a couple of billion or million years ago in a process called natural selection meaning that living things tend to evolve to another form to adapt and survive. It also tries to prove the Earth existing up to 4.5 billion years, meanwhile Scientist has proven that it is impossible for the Earth to be a billion years because the Earth’s magnetic field during the 18th century deteriorated in a predictable curve. With the results this shows that it is impossible to have life before 20000 B.C. An illustration showed that the moon would slowly be drifting away from the Earth.
Anaximander was the f irst ancient Greek to draw a map of the known world who believed that the earth was a cylindrical form. The way in which the geographical knowledge of the Greeks a dvanced from the prior assumptions of the shape of the Earth was through H erodotus and his conceptual view of the world. Herodotus travelled very extensively, collecting information and documenting his outcomes in his books on Europe, As ia, and Libya. He also combined his knowledge with his learning that he ga thered from the people he met. Herodotus wrote his Histories in the mid-400s BCE.
It drives plate tectonic motions of continents and the sea floor. The continents are formed after continental crust, formed from igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock. Oceanic crust is denser than the continental crust, therefore, at convergent margins, the continental crust remains at the surface while the oceanic plate is pushed down. Then the continental crust reinforced and gets thinker by the lava from subduction zone volcanoes. Question 6: How
did you know that leif ericson norse explorer was the first to discover the continent of north america before columbus.the vikings used cartography to make more accurate maps for making travel easier.They also had tools such as the compass which was first used in 1345 by european sailors and just kept improving.Vikings also possessed astrolabes a device that tells you if you are north or south from the equator these were first used in 225 BC but was available in europe by the eleventh
‘Your mother and I were just traveling through Africa with rod and reel; Tom Swift and his electric lion,’ said George Hadley. ‘There is no Africa in the nursery,’ said Peter Simply.” This dialogue shows that the characters are disagreeing on something at that
When Odysseus and his crew passed by the mainland where the Cyclops lived, they were only going to stay for two days, but then out of curiosity, Odysseus wanted to see what kind of beast the Cyclops was which made them almost die. Odysseus didn 't even ask his crew whether they should do it or not because Odysseus made it seem like their opinion wasn’t important and didn 't matter. In the story, it says “Why not take these cheeses...Yet I refused, I wished to see the cave man, what he had to offer” (pg 818 L198-199). Odysseus deserved to return home from his journey after 20 years because it was mostly his fault. If Odysseus had told his crew about everything like why not to eat the cattle or to not open the bag of the unfavorable winds, his journey wouldn 't have taken 20 years.
The first theory is that Nessie is a cryptocleidus, a prehistoric plesiosaur, because it is the only animal that matches the creatures characteristics (Yorke 20). Evidence to support the theory is due to a colony of plesiosaurs, which are aquatic reptiles said to be extinct 65.5 million years ago, possibly residing in Loch Ness (Redfern 118). Also, due to a minor theory that the prehistoric dinosaur may have survived Global Warming issues, on Earth (Kallen 31). Some skeptics disprove this theory by saying a plesiosaur is not a warm blooded animal and that they were not made to survive Loch Ness’ average 41 degrees fahrenheit waters (Redfern 118). The second theory is the monster is a gigantic eel, which was considered impossible because an eel is incapable of moving the way Nessie is said to move and also due to the fact they cannot be 30 to 40 feet in length (Redfern 118-119).
Human Based Testing: The Humane Thing To Do Animal testing has existed in research since the time of Aristotle, famous philosopher and scientist, who conducted tests on animals. It is understandable that Aristotle used animal testing as in those days there existed no technological alternatives that could be used to execute experiments (Hajar [Page 1]). In the times of Aristotle, there was no modern medicine and scientists did not understand even the basics of the human body. So it is only logical that in those days scientists concluded that the most efficient way to conduct experiments was through testing on animals. However, today the use of animals in research cannot be justified as there are existing alternatives that are more viable than
Then, there was Alfred Russel Wallace, he had a major influence on Darwin theory. Wallace, did the same thing Darwin did, he went on a voyage but he went to different islands and he noticed the same thing Darwin noticed in other species but he could not exactly put a name on his findings, so he sent his work to Darwin. That is when Darwin came up with natural selection and he wrote his book and years later Wallace wrote a book called Darwinism. 2. Earth was formed 4.568 billion years ago and early earth consisted organic molecules; hydrogen compound, methane, water vapor, and ammonia.
But this was only the beginning of science. Document D starts to come out with a woodcut called “Zodiac Man” from a book by German astronomer Johann Regiomontanus during 1512, and a woodcut from anatomy book On the Makeup of the Human Body by Belgian physician Andreas Vesalius, 1543 (Doc D). The zodiac sign are the basses of the 12 constellations. It is believed that each sign of the Zodiac meant for a certain part of the body. Then later a man named Andreas Vesalius dissected a human corpses to figure it out more.
Quote “Doesn 't the east coast of South America fit exactly against the west coast of Africa, as if they had once been joined?“ Unquote. These were Alfred Wegener’s words to his wife to be in 12/1910. Wegner wrote this theory from the observation that the continents located in the southern hemisphere make a pattern of rock/fossils known as the ‘Gondwanaland’. The best explanation was that the continents were once a part of a bigger "super-continent" which was called Pangea. However, today the continents will not fit together as they once did, some would over lap and some would have huge, spacious gaps filled with ocean.
I decided not to climb up the seamount because I was still weary of the possibility of there being an eruption and I continued on my way. While walking from the Bear Seamount, I came across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (38.7691,-30.96474). Commonly called MAR for short, the ridge is the longest mountain range in the world. It was formed by the tectonic plates diverging. Through this rift, magma rises from the mantle and erupts as lava to produce new crust material on the torn edges of the tectonic plates.
Scientific Concepts in “The Beak of The Finch” On an island in the middle of a volcanic archipelago, where Darwin first created theories on the idea of evolution, Peter and Rosemary Grant spend twenty years proving that Darwin did not understand the power of evolution. I now understand better how natural selection, hybridization, and adaptation work in the real world. When I first took biology freshman year I didn’t quite understand how natural selection and evolution were real. But, as you read this book you begin to learn that natural selection is not a rare thing nor does it work slow. It can take place by the hour.
Today there are only 500 wild horses remaining on public lands. The Forest Service was mandated by the Wild Free Horse and Burro Act in 1971 to establish wild horse territories where they existed at the time. Even though the Forest Service admits the Salt River wild horses were present at the time, they did not create a territory for the herd. A range and wildlife officer stated in a memo from Jan. 15, 1974, that the Salt River wild horses were not considered wild and free and that they bore brands identical to horses raised by residents of the Indian reservations, effectively excluding them from designation and protections.