• Speaker independent system: - This system is trained to respond to a word regardless of who speaks. Therefore the system must take action to a large variety of voice/speech patterns. Industrial requirements more often need speaker independent voice systems, such as the AT&T system used in the telephone systems. • Discrete speech recognition - The user must create a pause between each phrase so that the speech recognition can identify each separately spoken word. • Continuous speech recognition - The voice recognition can understand at normal rate of speaking, no such pauses are
Natural language processing is the area of research & application that explores how computers can be used to understand & then manipulate natural language text or speech to do useful things.Natural language processing is a technique by which machine will become more human, so Reducing the distance between people and Machine can be reduced. So, in the simple sense NLP make human and machine communication very easy. Natural language processing systems to take the word (sentence) string as its input and produces structures to capture the meaning of these strings as its output. Output depends largely on the nature of the task at hand. As an interface to connect to the database natural language understanding systems may accept English problems
The audio signal is obtained from the user and it is processed to extract the necessary values. These values are compared with the signal values of normal speech present in a database. The result of the comparison is given to the user as a graphical display and in the audio form. Fig.1. Block diagram of proposed
It terminates in the eardrum which is technically known as the tympanic membrane. The purpose of the external ear is to transmit sounds from the outside world into the more internal parts of the auditory system. While one can simply think of the pinna and ear canal as a simple funnel for collecting sounds, in reality they perform some important functions. The pinna has various ridges and folds that act to reflect and absorb certain frequency components of the sound wave . Because the pinna is not circularly symmetric, sounds which come from different directions will have slightly different spectral characteristics.
Lastly, and the one considered to be very much part of social interaction is communication in a day-to-day conversation. All of the aforementioned would entail a good command of the English language, thus the need for Basic English Grammar strictly apply into it. The English language is considered to be the ‘lingua franca’ and it is used by almost all people in the world. In order to become fluent in English, a person would need first to know the basic rules of the language, one of which is the English Grammar. Improving skill in English grammar will not only help people to create their sentences correctly but will also make it easier for them to develop their communication skills in both written and spoken English.
1.2.2. Definition of Machine Translation Machine Translation, sometimes referred to by the abbreviation MT (not to be confused with Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT), Machine-Aided Human Translation (MAHT) and interactive translation) is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software in translating from source language (SL) into the target language (TL) (Reddy & Hanumanthappa , 2013, p. 64). “Machine translation (MT) is the process whereby a computer program translates a text from one natural language into another […].The main focus of MT is to produce high-quality natural language output, translating from one language into another, quickly and cost-effectively.” (Flanagan, 2009, p. 27). Hutchins
As there are many changes around the world, every language do need new words as new things need new words. It is because the community are growing and developing just as the language which we use as the medium of communication in our life. If the new words are not created, this matter will affect our communication as we need word for the new things which are invented by the humans. Through many ideas from the human, there are various word formation processes are used to develop the language in the past and the present. According to George Yule in 2006, one of the most common word formation processes in the English language is derivation which is by adding morphemes to stems.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, when new personal computers were creating greater possibilities for individual work, supporters of communicative CALL stressed that computer-based activities should focus more on “using forms than on the forms themselves, teach grammar implicitly rather than explicitly, allow and encourage students to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language, and use the target language predominantly or even exclusively.” Communicative CALL corresponded to cognitive theories which stressed that learning is actually a process of discovery, expression, and development. Popular CALL software developed in this period included text reconstruction programs (allowing students to work alone or in groups to rearrange words and texts to discover patterns of language and meaning) and simulations (which stimulated discussion and discovery among students working in pairs or groups). For many proponents of communicative CALL, the focus was not so much on what students did with the machine, but rather what they achieved with each other while working at the
Decoding: In the last, the receiver interprets and understands the ideas of the sender along with the feelings attached to the signals being received. Verbal and non-verbal communication 4 Verbal communication It is basically communicating by speaking out the thoughts to the person whom the sender is talking . It is generally considered as the best mode of communication because in this the people communicating are more comfortable and can easily express their feelings to others. It is done in many languages around the globe but the most common is English as it has become the global language. It is considered to be most effective, anyone can learn to communicate verbally with regular practice easily.
The importance of multilingualism has risen significantly over the years, and is not only seen as a professional advantage but also as a step toward globalisation and multiculturalism. However, the complexity and diversity of various languages poses a problem to effective acquisition. This brought about the focus on the study of linguistics and applied linguistics, but unfortunately still yielding half answers and generating more questions. Language as conceived of by Chomsky (Chomsky, Syntactic Structures, 1957) is “a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements.” Language acquisition has always been a popular and yet controversial area of study. The process of language acquisition