Introduction: Pre-Rule: Catherine was born Sophia Augusta Fredericka in Stettin, Prussia at 2:30AM on April 21, 1729 to Prince Christian Augustus and Johanna. While growing up, she was educated in French, etiquette, and the Lutheran religion. She loved learning and reading, which exposed her to the Enlightenment. Its principles would become a core part of her beliefs until her death. She would later attempt to incorporate these principles into the Russian governmental system with both successes and failures.
The great English philosopher and political theorist John Locke laid much of the foundation of the Enlightenment period as well as having a major role to the synthesis of the idea of a liberal and limited government. He is regarded by many as the father of, what is now known as, British Empiricism. He’s also had great influence in fields such as theology with his theories of religious tolerance as well as educational theories. He published extensive essays such as An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, in which he discusses the way humans acquire knowledge by applying an empiricist theory; suggesting that we acquire ideas by directly interacting with our environment (Connolly, n.d.). The Two Treaties of Government, one of his most famous political works, introduces the idea that the power of government is with the people and he uses arguments such as natural rights and social contract to support his claim.
The contributions of John Locke in our society affect the way we value life. (www.biography.com) He was born on August 29, 1632 in Wington, Somerset, England. Both his parents were Puritans and he was raised that way. In 1647, he enrolled at Westminster School in London, were he earned the distinct honor of being named a kings scholar. His father was a country
John Wycliffe One of the most well-known and controversial Pre-Reformers was John Wycliffe. Known as “The Morning Star of the Reformation,” Wycliffe devoted much of his time to reform within the church and to developing logical philosophical arguments regarding church doctrine. He also was deeply involved in translating the Bible into the language of the common people. Although Wycliffe was an English priest who held four parishes
John Calvin, the French reformer, and theologian, made a powerful influence on the fundamental doctrines of Protestantism. His institutional and social patterns deeply influenced Protestantism. He is well known as Martin Luther 's successor as the preeminent Protestant theologian. He born in France on July 10, 1509, and died in Switzerland on May 27, 1564. His life & Education/Training: He was raised in a Roman Catholic family.
He practiced medicine for a while and was a personal physician for Caleb Bank. Here he began to get into politics, where then he wrote Two Treatises of Government. Written before its time, Locke’s ideas were composed against absolute monarchies and more focused onto the natural rights of man. Later being added to his works, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke became the “Father of
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, The Modern Man T.S. Eliot was one of the leading authors of the modernist movement. Modernism goes against tradition. It broke the barriers of what people viewed as sacred and routine. Traditionalist were in high favor of religion.
As such, the Martin Luther, the once humble Augustinian monk from Germany, became a key historical figure of the Reformation. The reform movement swiftly gained adherents in a number of German states, in addition to various northern European countries, such as England and Scotland. The movement had managed to attract both genuine individuals who sought to reform Roman Catholic orthodoxy as well as political leaders who sought to enlarge their power through the subversion against the church. In addition to Luther, many historians in the early twentieth century have focussed their work on John Calvin and his role in the early Reformation period. Calvin was a Frenchman who later settled in Geneva.
the enlightenment age of 18 century caused a philosophical movement which dominated the world of ideas in Europe in the 18th century . and the main goals of this enlightenment were liberty , reason ,progress , tolerance and ending the abuses of the church . so this philosophical movement was led by Francois Marie known as Voltaire who is a French critic and his life was so controversial , he born to a rich family and he gave up his law studies to continue writing , also he was imprisoned for a year for writing a stair against the regent and then he fled to England where he befriended king George . he live in exile till 1740 when he became a major figure and member of the academic francaise , after his return to France , he was exiled again to Switzerland . Voltaire always challenged the French government.
Nietzsche thought that Christian morals guided European humanity for the last 1,500 years (Bishop, 2012). Europeans had to make a noteworthy choice regarding the last man and the superman, between a realistic society dedicated to complete contentment or a higher but sad culture with superhuman possibilities (Bishop, 2012). Christianity was the first against particle and theoretical nihilism. Christianity gave purpose to people’s lives by granting them an absolute value, Christianity was able to explain and justify the evil and suffering in the world (Moroney, 1987). As time went by the spirit of truthfulness sprang from Christianity and eventually gave way to the rise of nihilism as people began to question the notion of God and the whole Christian culture (Moroney, 1987).