The author establishes that both monolingual and bilingual children can detect grammatical violations in meaningful sentences, however bilinguals are the ones who can detect grammatical errors in semantically anomalous sentences, because they can ignore misleading information. For the author this represents that the bilingual advantage has less to do with metalinguistic knowledge than with an attentional advantage in selectivity and inhibition, which are important process for executive functioning. Bialystok
Bilingualists are more aware of language differences and are better at learning new languages regarding the connections they make. Furthermore, bilingualists have more flexibility in thought and, in the same time, divergent thought. In addition, bilingualists are more opened to other cultures, are more gentle concerning their attitudes towards minorities. (Life with Two Languages: An introduction to Bilingualism, Francois Grosjean) On the other side, the bilingual experience, even though, at first sight, it may seam to give only advantages, involves several drawbacks, which need to be disscused and taken into consideration when we analyse the concept of bilingualism. On the level of language development, researchers found a variety of problems.
So, if the definition of bilingualism in this article is defined based only on the linguistic systems, rather than a social or societal one, the results would be plainly linked to the linguistic aspect of cognitive functioning. Despite the research given with regards to Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, is it accurate enough to apply those findings on all bilinguals? If an individual has the ability to speak 2 languages, but due to its surroundings, the second language will seldom be use. This then it does not benefit the brain after all. This is because, eventually, that person will only be concentrating on one language only.
ELF interactions often feature language innovations which would not be considered as correct in an English as a native language context. Pitzl who has investigated the use of idioms and metaphors by ELF speakers, states by paraphrasing Ehrenreich (2009: 140) that even though ELF speakers do not aim for a re-interpretation of English “they will not shy away from doing exactly this when context, communicative need or group appropriateness prompt them to do so”, thus this is representing an integral feature of every ELF interaction (Pitzl 2012: 39). Similarly, Jenkins, Cogo and Dewey (2011: 304) stress how “ELF is a means by which English is continually being re-enacted and reinvigorated through the inventiveness of its speakers as they respond
In a bilingual context, Costa, Hernández, Costa-Faidella and Sebastián-Gallés (2009) say that a continuous monitoring of which language to use for each communication is active. It called conflict monitoring, the ability to detect information conflict and then increase cognitive control to solve the problem. Some researchers think that instead of inhibition, conflict monitoring will give a bilingual advantage, although, monitoring involves inhibiting irrelevant information and stimuli and promoting goal-relevant information (Costa, Hernández, Costa-Faidella & Sebastián-Gallés, 2009). Some concluded that bilingualism provided enhanced mental flexibility and numerous varied mental abilities because they acquire more experiences in code-switching between two languages and this function helps them to get experiences about abandon a mental set and try another, which is more corresponding to the situation (Mezzacappa, 2004). Later studies based on these results proved that, as a consequence, bilingual children would be more effective on non-verbal tasks when incongruent information has to be ignored (Mezzacappa, 2004; Bialystok, 1999; Bialystok & Majumder, 1998).
Also verbal reactions may be slightly slower because needs a extra thinking caused by known many languages. Overall, the advantages are more important than the disadvantages. The study of a foreign language is encouraged especially among the children. People who speak several languages change their perception of discussion topics based on the main features of the languages they know. If languages are used interchangeably in communication, the speaker will have alternately different communication concepts and implications.
It has no specific borderline. In addition, according to Franson (2009), defining bilingualism is problematic since individuals with varying bilingual characteristics may be classified as bilingual. Even if people can talk with a native speaker in English fluently in their daily lives, there are some people who cannot speak about specific topics. For example, politics or economics. While the meaning of “bilingual” is unclear, the goal of bilingualism in Quebec is clearer.
Bilingual is defined, according to Webster’s dictionary, as ‘having or using two languages especially as spoken with the fluency characteristics of a native speaker; a person using two languages especially habitually and with control like that of a native speaker’ and bilingualism as ‘the constant oral use of two languages’. Therefore, being a bilingual person means you are able to communicate in two languages and not only that. Anna Wierzbicka claims in her article that “A point which seems to me particularly important is that experience of bilingual people should not be construed as merely their experience of speaking two languages but rather as their experience of living with other people through two different languages”. Knowing two languages, at least, gives you a better experience with a variety of people, especially if you know English or Chinese, which are the most important languages in the world. The author debates a “research into the interface of emotions and bilingualism promises to throw new light on wider issues of the relationship between
The participants have been selected 319 high school students for this study (152 girls and 167 boys) from three poles apart high schools in which there are two public schools and one private school. The age of the students ranged from thirteen to eighteen years. Among of three schools are presented by school H, there are 216 total of participants were selected, in which two French teachers with a total six classes (a class from seven teen to twenty-nice students) participated, and three Spanish teachers with a total of eight classes appropriated apart. School M, eighteen apprentices were designated; one French and Spanish teacher, each with two classes, joined in the study. School P was a secluded school, and most of the students do not contribute in the foreign language program.
“Phonological rules are part of communication through language, whether spoken or written, and knowing what they are and why they exist can help us better understand our world” (Smith 1995). There are two common types of phonological rules, these are universal (Assimilation) and non-universal (Dis-assimilation) rules. “Assimilation is a rule that makes two or more neighboring segments more similar by making the segments share some feature” (Jun, 1995). While, dissimilation is a rule that change feature values to make two phonemes in a string more dissimilar. “Deletion in English Language is the dropping of sound that takes place especially because morphemes are put close to each other and also because of their occurances in unstressed syllables or in rapid speech” (Ramelan,1977, p. 174)..