Through self-control. In this dialogue, Socrates explicitly states that the skills used to take care of what belongs to our bodies such as ring-making, or weaving do not make any of us self-controlled. Furthermore, someone who takes care of his body is taking care of something that belongs to his soul, and not himself (Plato, 131c). What Socrates is trying to do in this dialogue is help Alcibiades by teaching him that gaining self-control is to know himself, and before delving into the realm of politics it would be wise to know yourself in order to be a good politician. When you know yourself you are in full control of your actions which will guide you towards what is right and keep you away from what is wrong.
Virtue is important when people consider their own characters: virtues are what defines a person, what they stand for, what they believe in. The argument made here is that virtue is a type of knowledge, as Plato states in Meno. In Meno, Socrates and Meno talk about how virtue is not a type of knowledge, up until they describe it. Socrates says, “If then virtue is something in the soul and it must be beneficial, it must be knowledge, since all the qualities of the soul are in themselves neither beneficial nor harmful, but accompanied by wisdom or folly they become harmful or beneficial.” (88c4-88d2)
Who we regard as wise and unwise. Crito should seek the answer of the wise. Just as Socrates says in this passage. “Then, my friend, we must not regard what the many say of us: but what he, the one man who has understanding of just and unjust, will say, and what the truth will say.”
Instead of being perfect omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent gods, they have limited power and influence, and are often driven by humanistic emotions and desires. While the gods do show concern over some mortals, they don’t make decisions solely concerning the wellbeing or interests of the humans, but instead, like the humans themselves, usually act with their own interests at heart. Athena and Poseidon both acts in accordance to their desires and emotions, and have a biased view on particular humans. Unlike the perfect deities we have in mind when we think of the divine, Greek gods are just immortal beings who are just as fallible and imperfect as the humans they preside
Socrates states that persuasion is produced from opinion, not knowledge (454b-455a). Socrates states that rhetoric is based off opinion because if persuasion was knowledge it would be true, but not all persuasion is true. If persuasion was the same thing as knowledge it would never be false because you
I believe that Socrates had a stronger argument. This is because though Socrates claims to know nothing for each statement that Thrasymachus tries to create Socrates has a rebuttal for it. In the very beginning I was on the side of Thrasymachus when he said that justice is to the advantage of the ruler and lawmaker and to the disadvantage of the subjects. After his expansion on what he believed though I was no longer on his side.
Methods of Rationalism by Plato and Descartes Philosophy has had an impact on mankind for thousands of years. This topic attempts to answer questions about the everyday world, and how things are the way they are. In Philosophy, there are many different topics that are discussed. These topics include Epistemology, Ontology, Ethics, Political and Social Philosophy, Aesthetics, Logic, and more. The topic that will be discussed in this paper is Epistemology, or the study of knowledge.
In essence, he argues that greater acquisition of goods only comes through correctly applied wisdom, thus it is the wisdom itself (not the material goods) that is most important. Socrates concludes by arguing (in Apology, not Euthydemus) that misfortune and other men may take away all the material goods of a wise man, including his life, but they can never take his acquired wisdom (Apology 29d2-30b4). It is on this final point that we find one of the chief rationales to call Socrates a happy man—because his death cannot negate his accumulated wisdom, and since happiness is the telos of wisdom, Socrates must be a happy man. Add to this his own argument describing how, in fact, he finds happiness in his forthcoming
Therefore after punishing the king, Dionysus says “And if you had known how to be wise when you did not wish to be, you would have acquired Zeus' son as an ally, and would now be happy.” The author explains that peace and happiness can only be achieved by praying to the Gods and that making the Gods your enemy never a good thought. When the grandfather of the kings asks for forgiveness saying, “Gods should not resemble mortals in their anger.” Dionysus replies, “My father Zeus approved this long ago”. From the above we can say that even a God could be unforgiving and unsympathetic.
Socrates is incorrect in saying that no one is wiser than he is. Socrates says, “I found that those who had the highest reputation were nearly the most deficient, while those who were thought to be inferior were more knowledgeable.” (Apology 26) By this definition, Socrates implies that those who see themselves as lesser are truly greater. Those who admit they know nothing, know everything.
Socrates successfully exhibits that knowledge is required before one can achieve further knowledge. Socrates establishes the reasons why Theaetetus’ definitions of knowledge are incorrect. Knowledge is not perception because each individual man cannot be the objective measure of everything, and a constant flux contradicts the notion of relativism because one cannot measure something that is in constant flux. Knowledge
Though he believes that the mind is not a physical entity like the body, he reasons that because the mind is connected to the body, physical actions conducted by the body are attributable to the mind (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/dualism/#MinBodHisDua). It seems Plato is indicating that whatever is true for the physical world, must also be true for the mind and therefore, by his logic, jumps the ‘gap’ between physical and mental [437b]. This approach is again reminiscent of the ‘affirming the consequent’ fallacy and gives no real proof as to why the ‘gap’ could have logically been
In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle argues that the human good is the soul’s activity that expresses virtue. Aristotle concludes this from an invalid argument. On the one hand I do agree that the activity expressing virtue is a requirement for the human good. But on the other hand, I insist that the human good is a state and not an action. By modifying this argument, I believe we can reach a new conclusion that will help us better understand what Aristotle meant by these concepts.
Socrates’ position towards the authorities was inconsistent in The Euthyphro and The Crito. He questioned the authority in The Euthyphro but defended and obeyed it in The Crito. In The Euthyphro, Socrates had a dialog with Euthyphro who claimed to be an expert on the subjects such as holiness, Gods, piety, justice, etc. Socrates began his philosophical debate by asking Euthyphro to define piety and impiety.
The version of Socrates presented in both The Apology, Crito, and The Republic could very well be two different versions of Socrates as presented by Plato. However, both versions of Socrates have one thing in common: they both value the importance of philosophy and they both defend philosophy as something that is important to humanity. The Apology is Socrates defending not only himself, but also philosophy as an area of study that could be useful to the city of Athens. Socrates is trying to defend himself and his study and he tries to distance himself from the sophists in that they charge for money.