In defining communication theory there is five key terms which is social, process, symbols, meaning, and environment which can make us more understand about it. When studying and understanding communication theory we have found that there is a value that can make us more appreciate to our late researcher.
Hymes (1968:115) sets up a model of language functions which is similar to Jakobson's, but he adds a new seventh function, the contextual (situational) one. As opposed to Jakobson, he is against the view that any given message can be analyzed in terms of a hierarchy of functions such that one function is dominant , since the defining characteristics of some speech events may be a balance, harmonious or conflicting, between more than one function. If so, the interpretation of a speech event is far from assigning it to the one of seven types of function. 2.2.5 Finch's Model (1998) Using a language as a primary means of communicating thoughts is so natural for many people , but it is difficult to realize what in fact language
Many people would agree that language is something that makes people conscious beings. A person can use it for communication, an essential tool for sharing ideas that massively contributed to the development of the human civilization. Moreover, there are many ways to express oneself with a help of words. Furthermore, the quality of language depends on knowledge. If a person knows words, definitions, language structure, can read and write, it gives an individual an immense scope of possibilities, from reading books to writing letters, as well as delivering speeches.
Also such as Fairclough said in (1993) Critical Discourse Analysis neutral is to observe using of language such as social practice. Language users function in a traditional of societal, psychological outlines and cultural. Critical Discourse Analysis reviews the relations between written structures and takes the social context for explanation and discovers the relations between written structures then its purpose in contact inside the social order. This analysis is a complicated particularly if it comes to making and upholding differences in authority associations. The understanding of the difficult device of broad practice and its community role is commonly port impervious, particularly once the essential take place to make and uphold variances in authority associations.
The term discourse analysis is very ambiguous. It refers mainly to the linguistic analysis of naturally occurring connected speech or written discourse. Roughly speaking, it refers to attempts to study the organization of language above the sentence or above the clause, and therefore to study larger linguistic units, such as conversational exchanges or written texts. It follows that discourse analysis is also concerned with language use in social contexts, and in particular with interaction or dialogue between
As to Crystal (1997:75) defines conversation analysis as "a term used in linguistics and associated discipline to refer to a method of studying the sequential and coherence of conversations ( in their everyday sense) usually employing the techniques of ethnomethodology". Conversation analysis owes a supreme role in the real world as people can 't live without interaction. Conversation is a means of communication with other people with different purposes: social, official , medical, and commercial modes of life. Wang (2011: 76 ) states that “conversation analysis tries to discover, describe, and analyze structures of various, naturally occurring, interactional phenomena”, therefore, the analysis functions on how conversation participates to simplify things in daily life. Conversation analysis was introduced by Emmanuel Schegloff, Harvey Sacks and Gail Jefferson in the early of 1970s and was inspired by Ethno methodology.
There are characteristics identified by Richard and Rogers (1986:71) “The primary function of language is for the interaction and communication function of language. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning as exemplified in discourse.” The Communicative Language Theory means that teaching has to be student-centered. This suits the CAPS document because (2011: 8) “Learning to use language effectively enables learners to acquire knowledge, to express their identity, feelings and ideas, to interact with others, and to manage their world. It also provides learners with a rich, powerful and deeply rooted set of images and ideas that can be used to make their world other than it is; better and clearer than it is.
It includes many elements such as the physical surrounding, the relationship between the speakers, the past shared experience & current goals & the social events & broader cultural values & expectations (Allington, Daniel & Barbara, Mayor, 2012, p. 6). Any language take into consideration the cultural as well as linguistic knowledge. There is different from community to another community & from community itself in speaking the same language. There is a specific range of speaking English language in different uses associated with particular institutions, relationship, and particular social event. “In order to understand the function and meaning of any spoken exchange, we need to know the values held by the speakers and their expectations about language use in that particular cultural context” (Allington, Daniel & Mayor Barbara, 2012, p.
Language is a social expression of human interactions and written communication provides a record of these public events. Halliday differed from other linguists in their description of how language functions within a social situation, so the review sheds light on the systematic functional linguistics and grammatical Metaphor, especially the first type "ideational grammatical Metaphor. 2.1 Systemic Functional Grammar Systemic
This particular type of language function is presented in the form of a monologue which is characterized by showing a concrete organization and sequencing of the spoken discourse in which form, accuracy and content matters.” (Beltrán-Palanques, 2012). Basically there are three ways in which we talk to each other, and they can be divided based on the situation, for example, if we are talking to a friend, a boss, or giving a