She began secret negotiations with the Pope soon after becoming queen. At first, Mary was a good, kind queen, and the people were glad to be under her rule. That is, right up until the Wyatt rebellion, after which, the fear that overcame Mary led to the burning of the Protestants. Mary decided to marry her cousin, Philip of Spain. However, rumors were started that there were uprisings against the Spanish match.
He closed theatres and frowned on fancy dresses. Calvinism spread through the movement of people. The spread of Calvinism was a challenge to the Roman Catholic Church which led to many wars across Europe. John Calvin also inspired John Knox who was a Calvinist, John Knox returned to Scotland with great ideas which led to him setting up the Presbyterian Church and overthrowing the Catholic Queen. This summarizes how John Calvin had a great impact on the Reformation period religiously.
In the background of all of this, the Pope had offered suzerainty to Charlemagne, an offer too lucrative to be refused by the latter. Charlemagne traveled to Rome with the Pope, where he swore to his innocence. The plea was accepted by Roman and Frankish representatives, and Leo was reinstated as rightful pope. When Leo crowned Charlemagne, both gained from this new symbiosis. Charlemagne became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and Pope Leo III had set the precedent of choosing who would sit on the
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, “The king, Chilperic II, was in the power of Ragenfrid, mayor of the palace of Neustria, who joined forces with the Frisians in Holland in order to eliminate Charles. Plectrude imprisoned Charles and tried to govern in the name of her grandchildren, but Charles escaped, gathered an army, and defeated the Neustrians in battles at Amblève near Liège (716 [CE]) and at Vincy near Cambrai (717 [CE]).”(Duckett, Eleanor Shipley) Martel had a lot of military experience before the Battle of Tours by uniting the Frankish Kingdom (most of the present-day France, and some of Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland, and Germany), so he was prepared to fight the battle that would ultimately decide the fate of the western world’s religion. The fact that he was able to do it at all, against all odds also adds to his repertoire as a military genius. This skill as a military tactician ultimately allowed him to muster the forces to defeat the Moors at the Battle of Tours and secure the future success of Christianity in
Foreign invaders, such as the Visigoths and Ostrogoths wanted to conquer Rome. Rome’s first mistake was inviting these enemies into their territory. Evidence from a map of the Foreign invasions of Rome show evidence on not an invasion, but a migration (Document C.) So, when other Germanic tribes decided to invade, they could have allies on the inside. One of Rome’s enemies, the Huns were a ruthless group. In Document D, stated is “Fired with an overwhelming desire for seizing the property of others, these swift moving and ungovernable people make their destructive way amid the pillage and slaughter of those who live around them.” This piece of evidence shows how savage Rome’s enemies were.
The Manichaean religious movement (which began in the third century A.D.) pointed with scorn at the anthropomorphisms in the Old Testament. “Look how literal interpretation results in absurdity,” the adherents to Manichaeanism exclaimed. All of this was meant to discredit the Old Testament and Christianity. Such objections kept Augustine, for a while, from embracing Christianity. Then came Ambrose who took Paul’s statement that “the letter kills but the spirit makes alive” as a slogan for allegorical interpretation.
The holy war which was not known as the crusades until the 16th century were a series of wars that were started by the pope of the Holy Catholic Church he thought that because of the “serious theological disagreement had split the Greek Church of Byzantium and the Roman Church of the West. The pope believed that a crusade would lead to strong Roman influence in Greek territories and eventually the reunion of the two churches.” (McKay 401) to help motivate the people and the upper echelon of the militaristic society Pope Urban II declared that all who participated in the crusade that all their sins would be forgiven without ever having to confess to a priest, while all at the same time declaring that the “Infidel” (which is a term both sides
The Concordat attempted to resolve the religious violence that broke out in France after the French civil war, but the Concordat was not finalised until 1815. The Concordat acknowledged Roman Catholicism’s status as the official religion of France that resulted in bishops and priests becoming employed by the French government. The Concordat eliminated the influence of the Constitutional church, which deprived the Roman Catholic Church of the domination of religion and provided more legal rights to Calvinists and Lutherans by fully integrating religious tolerance inside of France (Hosack, 2010). The armies of rebels continued to travel the backwoods until the execution of Georges Cadoudal, who was executed for making an attempt to kidnap and assassinate Napoleon with use of bombs in 1800. One of Napoleons greatest achievement was the Concordat because it adopted religious tolerance within France, which spread throughout Europe.
Power is present in all role of the story and the character who symbolises it is Créon. But power of goods are omnipresent as well, represented by Antigone, and there is a confrontation between both of them. Following examples of passages of the book are presented to evince the presence of the authority and power in the play. Starting from the beginning, even if is not represented in the play, the first power conflict was between two brothers. Polynice betrayed his brother Eteocle when he did not want to cede the throne of Tebas, they died fighting each other and Creón became king of Tebas.
A main source of the controversy and idea of violence that surrounds jihad today actually comes from Omar’s conquest of the Sassanid Empire, which Omar labeled a “jihad” (Ansary 44). It is the grouping of this conquest with the idea that it was fought and people died in the name of Allah, that gave people the first beliefs that Islam was a violent faith. This stigma has continued to stick around to modern times. In reality, however, this is no different than the conquests that the Byzantine Empire had been been waging around the same time period in the name of Christ, and what Pope proclaimed some four hundred years later during the Crusades. However, since Christian rulers then became the most influential following the fall of Islamic civilizations, Christians used these violent wars in the name of Allah against the Muslim community while glorifying their own wars to further the stigma of violence that still continues to permeate the Islam
3. Secondary literature maintains three common themes concerning Viking raids: the Franks disobeyed God’s instruction, prophets cautioned the consequences of rebellion, and God sent Vikings to discipline Christians. 4. Frankish clerics often compared sin, both the sin of the people and
The punishment given by Odysseus to the wooers that had overrun his kingdom during his absence was death. I believe there were many reasons he was justified for his actions. Odysseus knew he could not just return home and claim his kingdom after all these years and with all of the things that were happening. There were many wooers that were no good, arrogant and deceitful and only there to claim his wife and home without any regard for the kingdom. There were even plans made by one, Antinous, to kill Telemachus, their son due to his heir to the throne.
The second reason why Europe was in a Dark Age is because of the crusades. For example, The emperor from the Byzantine empire asked Pope Urban from the Holy Roman Empire. The Pope answered and accepted the emperor cry for help. After the Pope had his people help the emperor of Byzantine he ordered his people to take over Jerusalem because he
Sebastian Castellio best shows this perception in Document 1. The French Theologian paints a direct correlation between the lack of stability of a territory with the advent of differing religions or denominations (Document 1). Castellio’s point of view most likely stems from his experiences as a French Protestant and how his views led to his exile from France and how two religions resulted in a civil war in France. Spain under Philip II also maintained the importance of religious uniformity for political stability and strength. Pere Oroming’s painting of the expulsion of the Moriscos clearly illustrates this concept (Document 6).