Into round bottom flask taken 180 ml nHexane . Extracted at 75°C for 24 h until the solvent leached colourless. Dry solvent from sample. Followed by transesterification Transesterification process Transesterification is the process by which the glycerides present in fats or oils react with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to form esters and glycerol Chemical-Catalyzed Transesterification. In a 150 mL Erlenmeyer flask with a magnetic stir bar placed 0.25 g of anhydrous sodium hydroxide and dissolved it with 10 mL of methanol.
Then, the flask is put on shaker table and mixed at 150 rounds per minute before allowing them to settle for 10 minutes. After settling, the water sample is poured from side spout which is connected to the bottom of the flask. Some researchers reported better reproducibility with modified flask where stopcock is installed at the bottom of the flask, instead of side spout to pour the water sample (Blondina, et al., 1997) (Sorial, et al., 2004a) (Sorial, et al., 2004b). The dispersed oil in the removed water sample is extracted into methylene chloride for further analysis. Then, the oil concentration is evaluated using 340, 370 and 400 nm light absorbance (Environmental Protection Agency,
Characterization of Crude Extract 3.1 Physical Test 3.1.1 Organoleptic Test The color, odor and physical state of extract will be determined. 3.1.2 Solubility Test The solubility test for extract will be performed using distilled water, 80% alcohol, chloroform, hexane and ether. 3.2 Chemical Tests The crude extract will be dissolved in 20mL of 80% ethyl alcohol. It will be filtered and divided into 5 test tubes and will be labeled as A, B, C, D and E. The test tube A will be kept blank. 3.2.1 Ferric Chloride Test The sample extraction will be dissolved in 2 ml ethanol.
200ml of water was then added to the filtrate in a 500ml beaker with constant stirring. White solid was formed in the process of addition and the solution was then left undisturbed in an ice bath for 10minutes. Once most of the solids had settled at the base of the beaker, the solution was decanted. 10ml of ethanol was added to the remaining suspension and was transferred in a clean centrifuge and centrifuged for 2minutes at 6000rpm. After the first centrifugation, the supernatant was discarded and the residue was washed by adding 14ml of ethanol.
A 50 mL buret was obtained and was washed with NaOH solution. After filling the buret with NaOH (titrant) and preparing the KHP (analyte) in the Erlenmeyer flask, the solutions were titrated. The volume used from the NaOH solution was recorded. C. Determination of the Acidity of Soft Drinks First, the soft drinks were heated. Upon cooling, it was shaken until no bubbles were formed.
Each 0.1M Sodium hydroxide solution that had been rinsed was drain into the waste container located under the hood. 3. The burette was filled with 0.1M Sodium hydroxide solution(prepared prior of this experiment) to 50 ml volume and the burette was clamp vertically(the air bubbles was remove from the tip of the burette by draining the 0.1M Sodium hydroxide into smaller beaker) 4. The 10g or 10ml amount of samples was inserted into 250ml conical flask and with addition of 50ml distilled water 5. Three to five drops of phenolphthalein were added into conical flask 6.
A few of parasites were flattened on a clean slide under the slight pressure of a cover glass & fixed in Alcoholic Bouin,s fluid for 12 hours. Stains like Gover,s Carmine, Mayer’s Para carmine & Haemalum were used for the preparation of whole mounts for identification & the study of reproductive organs. The smears were prepared from the living material by puncturing the ovary with two fine steel needles under the stereoscopic binocular microscope. The semi fluid contents were allowed to spread over the clean slide & then the slide is inverted over the fixative without losing much time. After fixation with sublimate acetic the material is washed for 20-24 hours in running water.
An example of solid is silica beads. But here we use a liquid sample. Then the characteristicis classified to polar and nonpolar. We separate these to know the chemical compunds of the our sample soft drinks. For us to determine the caffeine e in soft drinks.
The eggs were divided into 5 groups, each treatment was done in triplicates. Calamansi crude extract was reconstituted to three concentrations: (Treatment 1, 99μ of distilled water and 1μL of Calamansi crude extract) 1%, (Treatment 2, 95μ of distilled water and 5μL of Calamansi crude extract) 5%, and (Treatment 3, 90μ of distilled water and 10μL of Calamansi crude extract) 10%. Retinoic acid was used as a positive control, and ethanol as negative control. Approximately, 100μL of each treatment was placed in the filter paper. After the introduction of test solutions, the eggs were sealed with a tape and incubated for
Step-III: Synthesis of Cr(II) Complexes: The Schiff's base complexes were synthesized by mixing the Schiff's base (1.5 g) in ethanolic solution of Chromium chloride [CrCl2]. This reaction is refluxed in a waterbath for two hours and their volume were reduced to 70% of it’s original volume and residue was obtained. The coloured product obtained was filtered under suction, washed with ethanol. The product were recrystallized from ethanol. Their yields ranges from 50-55%, the product obtained were light green colour and melting point was 2100C.