This is over an order of extent less than the energy consumption of the communication part. Communication/data processing exchange between sensor nodes but more local processing implemented by one sensor node in order to enlarge the lifetime of the WSN. That energy efficient routing determination is more important than simple shortest path routing. Several strategies are prevalently employed for power aware routing in WSNs that Minimizing the energy consumed for each message
Cellular manufacturing (CM), which is a novel manufacturing method drawn from a group technology (GT) concept is an approach that can be utilized to enhance both flexibility and efficiency in the current modern manufacturing ecosystems like the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) and Just in Time (JIT) method of production. Few advantages of CM implementation are: reduction in setup time, reduction in work-in-process inventory, reduction of costs in material handling, improvement in machine usage and quality. The design of a cellular manufacturing system (CMS) involves in (1) cell formation (CF) that is : (aggregating parts with similar requirements in processing into part families and related machines into machine cells), (2) group layout (GL) ( that is: laying out machines inside each cell, known as intra-cell layout, and cells with regard to one another, called inter-cell layout), (3) group scheduling (GS) (that is setting up part families) and (4) allocation of resources (i.e., allocating tools and human and material resources) . Despite the interconnection between these decisions, almost all studies have been investigating them sequentially or independently. Even more in-depth review and analysis of mutually dependent relations between them can be found in Wu et
of Electronics Mangalore University Mangalore firstname.lastname@example.org 3Sangeetha B L II Year M.Tech (DE&CS) Dept. of ECE Malnad College of Engineering Hassan, Karnataka, India-573202 email@example.com Abstract: The objective of this work is to design and analyze a Microstrip DGS patch antenna, apply the DGS concept and study the response of the Microstrip patch antenna (MPA) due to this DGS. The accomplished DGS is included as a part of a whole in the ground plane under the patch antenna to improve its performances. An archetype of the antenna was simulated with the RT Duriod-5880 substrate and verified. A FEM based electromagnetic solver, Ansoft HFSS is used for analysis of the result.
It indicates the pointing direction of antenna and the bearing of plane. fig - block diagram of radar http://www.radartutorial.eu/01.basics/pic/signalweg.en.gif Transmitter It produces the high powered short duration radio frequency signal that are spaced by an antenna. Duplexer It alternately switches the antenna between the transmitter and receiver as only one antenna can be used at a time. This is done as transmitter will transmit high powered signals and receiver will operate upon reflected low powered signal . So to avoid the high-power pulses of the transmitter to enter into receiver and destroy it.
4. Total Harmonic Distortion Fig. 5. Individual harmonics in a signal VI. Circuit simulation In this paper we are simulating a Bridge type full wave rectifier.. We have used Simulink and done Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT) of the output waveforms.
It can also be derived from the impedances: VSWR = (1+ )/(1- ) Fig. 6.1.2 VSWR Plot for Antenna Configuration 1 6.1.3 Smith Plot: The scattering matrix is a mathematical construct that quantifies how RF energy propagates through a multi-port network. The S-matrix is what allows us to accurately describe the properties of incredibly complicated networks as simple "black boxes". For an RF signal incident on one port. The same is being shown here in the manner of Smith Plot.
5 Simulation block diagram of SG with PID Controller and Discrete Filter Fig. 6 Response of SG with PID Controller and Discrete Filter.. IX. CONCLUSION The research emphasized on the behavior of transient stability by MATLAB / Simulink. A M-file is presented to show Numerical solution by Point-by-Point method. The response of Synchronous generator with PID and Discrete filter is also shown using MATLAB blocks.
Study and Design of Current Starved Voltage Controlled Oscillator using Ring Oscillator @ 45nm CMOS Technology Sharad kumar1, Soumendra Kumar Dash2, Sidhant Sahoo3, Bandi Jagdeeshwar Reddy4, Suraj Kumar Saw5, Deepak Prasad6, Vijay Nath7 Department of ECE VLSI Design Group Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract-The implementation of CMOS technology in communication field has become the need in present scenario so as to develop such devices which are compact, noise free and dissipate ultra low power. An oscillator is used in order to generate a periodic signal or waveform for various applications. These applications vary from clock generation in microprocessors to carrier synthesis in cellular phones. All these applications require different types of oscillators that can be connected in various topologies. There are many circuit techniques that are used to develop a VCO.
For that reason, the proposed antenna is suitable for fixed-point RFID antenna application. The proposed antenna is designed with any directional radiation pattern where it is applicable for long ranges application. Proposed antenna design will be simulated using the Computer Simulation Technology in Microwave Studio and all the antenna performance will be discussed in term of return loss, current distribution, radiation pattern, and antenna efficiency. Then antenna will be fabricated and comparison between simulation and measurement will be discussed in term of return loss and normalize radiation pattern only 1.5 Thesis Outline The thesis are divided into five chapters, thesis will be organized as
1. Example of BS sleeping scheme with coverage extension Hence, cooperation among BS is significant to maintain the availability cellular access over the service area. The specific system parameters used for making the switching decision, have to be determined. Since in low-traffic periods, most BSs will be able to be easily switched to sleep mode, identifying the best BS set to switch off is a major challenge. Furthermore, consideration needs to be given to key parameters which directly impact on network performance, such as traffic load and interference.