Cooperative learning model is an active process where students work in small teams/groups, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Students have opportunities to actively participate in their learning, question and challenge each other, share and discuss their ideas, and adopt their learning. Ross and Smyth (1995) describe successful cooperative learning tasks as intellectually demanding, creative, open-ended, and involve higher order thinking tasks. In this model, it is essential to create a positive climate where interpersonal skills can be promoted so that positive emotions will be fostered among learners. Cooperative learning also helps the learners to feel empowered and respected to prepare them to face real
Additionally, the tasks need to be constructive and interlinked and provide a challenge to the students while also acting as a motivation factor. The adopting of effective teaching to match the personal strengths of the students ensures that a student’s learning outcome is achieved Holistic assessment should be encouraged to understand what the learner has captured on a learning
The model suggests that learning occurs in two levels, first through interaction with others and second through zone of proximal development. The zone area is known as the area of exploration for which students are cognitively prepared. In this situation, the students need assistance and social interaction, which helps in developing skills and capabilities. The teachers use scaffolding approach to support the learning and understanding of the students. The socio-cultural environment provides the individuals with a variety of tasks and demands, which helps in connecting and engaging with the society and world.
Many disciplines utilize different terminology to describe essentially the same process, which can add to confusion when selecting and implementing an active learning approach. These differences can be attributed to the disciplines they were promulgated from or the organization that they emanated from. Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is an approach that involves a small group of leaners working together as a team to solve a problem, complete a task or accomplish a learning activity that will improve their understanding of the subject matter. Every member is responsible not only by the words but also for helping teammates learn (Artzt and Newman, 1990). Accordingly, in cooperative classrooms, the students are expected to help each other, to discuss and argue with sharing their ideas.it helps to assess each other’s current knowledge and fill in gaps in each other understands.
Sharing: teacher should encourage cooperation among learners, so that learner get aware that cooperation has a better result to them. They prepare for participation in a larger social community. Individuality: besides cooperation, learner should understand the importance of individuality. Then, he/she can be more flexible when he/she confronts different ideas. A sense of belonging: teacher is responsible for involving learner in group activity to create a sense of belonging to a community.
Active learning is a set of strategies that motivates students to learn by their own with the help of Knowledgeable others. The following examples of active learning are being used in this study; discovery learning, problem-based learning, experiential learning, and inquiry-based instruction, think-pair-share, quick-writes, polling, cooperative learning, and student presentations. Another theory for which this study is also anchored is attributed to Frederick Herzberg the Motivation Theory. It is concerned with the processes that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. Motivated learners can learn almost everything.
According to Vygotsky (1978), knowledge is social in nature and is constructed through a process of interaction and communication among learners in social settings. He made a strong argument that students need to demonstrate their knowledge by creating explanations and interpreting their work for others. Each student has a base level of knowledge, but they can increase it by practicing what they know well and adding onto it. Therefore, the social interaction between the student, teacher and other students reinforces their increase of knowledge. Classes where students have opportunities to communicate with each other help students effectively construct their knowledge (Brooks, 1993).
The middle school model uses various modes of instruction that benefit various of learners. The middle school model uses student centered approaches to learning. Inquiry learning and interactive learning are also emphasized in the middle school model. Differentiation is used to meet the needs of all unique learners. Cooperative learning, discussions, student inquires, and projects are used to meet the needs of auditory, visual, kinesthetic learners.
(1995) conducted a study about Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical Thinking, The idea of Collaborative learning in, the gathering and blending of Students with the end goal of accomplishing a scholastic objective, has been generally inquired about and pushed all through the expert writing. The expression "Collaborative learning" refers to a guideline technique in which Students at different execution levels cooperate in little groupings toward a shared objective. The students are in charge of each other 's learning and also on their own. Along these lines, the achievement of one Student causes different Students to be
The importance of good lesson planning and the benefits they have for the teacher. When considering the importance and even the significant of effective lesson planning, quite often we immediately considering the benefits that this can have on the student. Effective lesson planning certainly does benefit the student, discussed later in this essay. The benefits of planning for the teacher However, the teacher benefits of planning must also be considered. This means an effective class and raised teaching standard which in-turn improves the overall motivation of the teacher.