Obstructive Pulmonary Rehabilitation

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INTRODUCTION:
Pulmonary diseases are increasingly important causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. The COPD is the most common chronic lung diseases, and are a major cause of lung-related death and disability.1 Pulmonary rehabilitation has emerged as a recommended standard of care for patients with chronic lung disease based on a growing body of scientific evidence.There is growing evidence that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has systemic consequences, including a syndrome of skeletal muscle dysfunction.1Exercise training has long been advocated as a useful rehabilitative strategy for this patient population.8

More recently, high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (hf-NMES) has been successfully used
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In this study, hf-NMES was applied to patients with the severe copd.Exercise and activity limitation are characteristic features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Exercise intolerance may result from ventilatory limitation, cardiovascular impairment, and/or skeletal muscle dysfunction.Exercise training, a core component of pulmonary rehabilitation,improves the exercise capacity (endurance and, to a lesser degree, maximal work capacity) of patients with COPD in…show more content…
Hence,The study was undertaken to evaluate the ““EFFICACY OF PULMONARY REHABILITATION PROGRAM VS. HIGH FREQUENCY NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION EMPHASIZING LOWER LIMB MUSCLE TRAINING IN SEVERE COPD PATIENTS”

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF COPD:

In the United States, COPD accounted for 19,054 deaths in 2000, ranking as the fourth leading cause of death and the only major disease among the top 10 in which mortality continues to increase.5–8 In persons 55 to 74 years of age, COPD ranks third in men and fourth in women as cause of death.9 However, mortality data underestimate the impact of
COPD because it is more likely to be listed as a contributory cause of death rather than the underlying cause of death, and it is often not listed at all.10,11 Death rates from COPD have continued to increase more in women than in men.5

Severity of COPD

For consistency throughout the document, the panel used the description of severity of COPD as recommended by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease18 and the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Guidelines19 based on FEV1, as follows: stage I

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