5. X-RAY DIFFRACTION * XRD is a technique generally employed for elucidation of structure and arrangement of atoms. * In our analysis the structure of GO and PCBGO were analysed. * The interlayer distance upon functionalisation can be seen as a function of oxidation. * The d spacing for GO= 7.82 Å from diffraction peak at 11.4 degrees for the  plane.
1. For the demo experiment, the balanced chemical equation is as follows: (NH4)2Cr2O7(s)=Cr2O3(s)+N2(g)+4H2O(g). After the lightning of Ammonium dichromate, Chromium (III) oxide was formed while the Nitrogen and Water escaped into the atmosphere in a gaseous phase. Ammonium dichromate((NH4)2Cr2O7) gave rise to Chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3), Nitrogen Gas(N2) and water (H2O) In terms of microscopic level, the ratio between reactants and products is as follows. One mole of Ammonium dichromate will give rise to one mole of 1 mole of Chromium (III) oxide and 1 mole of Nitrogen gas and 4 moles of Water is gaseous phase.
The solution was stirred at room temperature for 8h. The solvent was blown out with nitrogen. The residue was added to 1 ml of water containing 0.1% TFA and purified on RP-HPLC. Massspec of the final product clearly indicates presence of RB modified on PEI by series of peaks matching different polymer compositions (see Fig. 6).
Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC. When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was 2.006 grams. The experiment yield is 1.589g, which is a 80.3% yield.
The isotherm was recorded by Micromeritics ASAP 2020 analyzer and the physical adsorption of N2 at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (-196oC) with a standard pressure range of 0.05-0.30 P/Po. 2.3 Catalytic Activity Measurement After annealing the catalyst bed, it was cooled to room temperature in the same conditions as we used for reactive calcination. The CO oxidation was analysis by gas chromatogram to measure the activity of the catalyst. The oxidation of CO was carried out to measure the activity of resulting catalyst. 2CO + O2→2CO2 -------------------- (1) The oxidation of CO was carried out under the following reaction conditions: 100mg of catalyst with feed gas consisting of a lean mixture of 2.5 vol.% CO in air and total flow rate is maintained 60 mL/min.
In a separate beaker, 10-3 M of synthesized SB was dissolved in 10 ml DMF. The two solutions were mixed together under stirring and resulting yellow precipitate solution was transferred to a sonochemical bath. After 60 minutes of sonochemical treatment, the resulting CdS precipitate was collected, filtered, washed with double distilled water and absolute ethanol several times to remove the unreacted chemicals, and finally dried in an oven at 80oC for 5hours. Similar procedure was adopted to synthesize uncapped CdS
Magnetic susceptibility and photoluminescence are analyzed after the calcination process using magnetic susceptibility balance (Sherwood Scientific, Appendix Figure 27) and fluorescence spectrometer with excitation wavelengths range from 370 nm to 600 nm, emission wavelength 390, excitation slits set at 5.0 nm and the scan speed of 500 nm/min (PerkinElmer fluorescene spectrometer LS 55, Appendix Figure 28). In the calcination process, the furnace was activated in the morning of the day (around 10a.m) and was off in the evening (at 5p.m). The synthesis of strontium ferrite is using the same pathway by using only strontium nitrate and iron(III) nitrate-9-hydrates. In sol-gel process, this process is a method to establish a sol and allow formation of gel and removal of solvent. The metal or metalloid element is surrounded by different kinds of ligands and they are suspended in the medium called precursors.
Acetonitrile at a PH of 7 (neutral) is added to each of the test tube samples. Mix the samples on a vertex shaker for 3 minutes and transfer to a 20 ml centrifuge tube and place in a TurboVap under 5-psi nitrogen at room temperature and allow it to completely dry. The dry resides are now put in 1ml of acetonitrile for testing (analysis). 4. Chromatographic Condition 10ml of the extract is now taken to be analyzed using a mass spectrometer and a liquid chromatograph.
The analysis was carried on C18 shim- pack GIST (150mmx 4.6mm 5µ) column used as stationary phase. A freshly prepared mobile phase consisting of methanol: potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer in ratio of (30:70 v/v), PH-3 adjusted using ortho phosphoric acid (OPA) these were filtered by 0.45µM Whatmann filter paper and sonicated before use. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1ml/min. The detection was carried out at 220 nm and run time was around 10 minutes. Selection of wavelength A UV spectrum of drotaverine hydrochloride, ethamsylate, tranexamic acid in water was noted by scanning the solution in the range of 200-400nm.
The overall goal of this lab was to produce an unknown oxalate compound, find its percent composition, calculate its molecular formula, and determine the limiting reactant in its formation. A reaction between iron III chloride hexahydrate and potassium oxalate monohydrate produced 3.307g of potassium trioxalatoferrate (III) trihydrate with a 62.0 percent yield. A permanganate titration determined the average percent composition of oxalate was 53.3% with a 2.22% standard deviation. The percent composition revealed the compound’s empirical formula to be FeK3(C2O4)3•3H2O. Potassium oxalate proved to be the limiting reactant.
It was sprayed with an ethanol solution containing 10% sulfuric acid, and heated at an infra-red drier until obvious color came up, as shown in Fig.2 (B.ab). Simultaneously, the amount of silver nitrate in the impact of isolative effect was investigated with the sample procedure, as shown in Fig.2