The purpose of this lab was to change pennies from copper to silver to gold, like alchemists have attempted to do in history. Through the data and observations gathered throughout this experiment, it can be concluded that the pennies were not changed into a different element. For example, the density of the penny from 2005; which was the penny that was experimented on to see whether or not it could turn into silver; was 4.62 g/cm3 before the experiment and 4.89 g/cm3 by the end of the experiment. If this copper penny really would have turned into silver, then the density of the penny would be 10.49 g/cm3; which is the density of silver; by the end of the experiment. The penny may have turned silver in color, but this was only because it was plated in the zinc that was added to the beaker of water in the experiment.
Three metals ions are Magnesium, Iron, and Nickel. Iron is used in the sea with iron rich minerals, for substances. Iron was also used in the formation of earth. Magnesium is used in cells of every organism. It helps balance out the functions within the cells. Nickel is used for light absorption in natural environments. Nickel is also used in rings for a cheap substance rather than silver or gold.
The purpose of the lab is to acquire the percent composition of zinc and copper. The procedure included obtaining a post 1983 penny and washing it with soap and water. Using a triangular file, we made an X on the penny. Then, we cleaned the top and bottom of the penny with steel wool until it was shiny. We rinsed the penny in acetone and dried it with paper towel. Next, we determined the mass of the penny by placing it on a balance. The mass of the penny was 2.47 grams. Afterwards, we placed the penny in a beaker filled with 20 mL of 6 M HCl. In the end we put the beaker in the fume hood and allowed it to sit overnight. During day two of the penny lab, we removed the penny skin from the beaker using tweezers. We rinsed the penny skin with
Experiment 3 comprised three reactions: formation of dimethyl tetraphenylphthalate, hexaphenylbenzene, and tetraphenylnaphthalene. All 3 reactions used tetraphenylcyclopentadienone as the diene to generate products with high aromatic stabilization.
The purpose of this lab was to compare galvanizing and creating brass with pennies using weight change, mass change and observations. The independent variables are the types of pennies used. The dependent variables are the characteristics, change in pennies, and mass of the pennies. The constant variable is the amount of sodium hydroxide.
In order to find the amount of a product made during a double displacement reaction, the product has to be separated from the solution. From this number of moles of precipitate can be calculated. From there the number of moles of reactants can be calculated using the mole ratios of the particular reaction that occurred. As seen in Table 5 it is shown that by finding out the number of moles of the unknown, the molar mass of the unknown can be calculated. From the found mass of the unknown compound, the mound of the original ion can be found. In all trials, some of the precipitate was lost through the filter. Therefor all values are most likely less than the actual values due to
This experiment is performed to test how Daphnia react when exposed to differing levels of copper sulfate so that we may understand what effects it has on underwater organisms. One possible hypothesis is, if the levels of copper sulfate in their environment rise, more of the Daphnia will die because copper sulfate is toxic.
The objectives of this experiment were to use knowledge of chemical formulas and chemical nomenclature to experimentally determine the empirical formula of copper chloride. Common laboratory techniques were used to conduct a reaction between copper chloride and solid aluminum in order to get rid of the water of hydration. The amount of water of hydration in the sample of copper chloride hydrate was calculated by measuring the mass before and after heating the sample. Afterwards, an oxidation-reduction reaction was conducted, resulting in elemental copper. Using the Law of Definite Proportions, the mass of this product was used to determine the number of moles of copper and chlorine in the sample, which led to being able to determine the
Background Information/Introduction: The aim of this lab is to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide by converting magnesium to magnesium oxide. As an alkali earth metal, magnesium reacts violently when heated with oxygen to produce magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride as a byproduct. In order to obtain only magnesium oxide, distilled water was added so that magnesium nitride will react and convert to magnesium hydroxide. Further heating then oxidizes all of the magnesium into magnesium oxide. After the reaction is finished, the percentage composition of each element in the product can be found and used to calculate the empirical formula, which is the lowest whole number ratio