Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Background theories In a global environment, a company must choose and own a core business strategy to excel - i.e. competency mapping. (Wasalwar, 2011) If companies have a list of clearly defined roles and competencies for all their job requirements, these can be used for promotions, placements and training needs analysis of key positions. (Uddin, 2012) In most hospitals, these key positions belong to the Medical Director, the Chief Nurse or Nurse Manager and the Hospital Administrator. A clearly defined and delineated competency set of knowledge, attitude and skills or KAS for these positions can strengthen a hospital 's positioning in a global market.
In order for a capability to be a core competence it must possess the four core competencies. The four core competencies are capabilities that are valuable, rare, costly to intimidate and non-substitutable. When a competitor lacks resources to attempt imitation or when a company cannot duplicate benefits of a firm’s strategy is when a sustainable competitive advantage exists. VALUABLE Valuable capabilities help a firm neutralize threats or exploit
Business Assessment An organization must identify its core competencies and strategically align those competencies with its business objectives to achieve success. In fact, C.K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel explained in the Harvard Business Review that the most powerful way for an organization to prevail is for it to “identify, cultivate, and exploit the core competencies that make growth possible” (2000). Lockheed Martin has thoroughly aligned its competencies, business objectives, and key performance indicators, which has undoubtedly contributed to the corporation’s effectiveness. Core Competencies Core competencies are capabilities possessed by an organization that “when applied to create products and services, make a critical contribution to corporate competitiveness” (Edgar & Lockwood, 2011).
By utilizing a competency-based approach to leadership, organizations can better recognize and build up their up and coming age of leaders. There are distinctive sorts of leadership competencies which are basic to all firms, for example, lucidity of obligations as leader, effective delegation, respect for associates and subordinate, clear vision, mindfulness and so forth. An emphasis on leadership competencies and skill advancement advances
The key point is that a persisting great organization chooses for itself what values it holds to be centered, to a great extent autonomous of the operating environment, focused on current needs, or administration style. For sure, then, there is no all around "right" arrangement of core values. Once more, to underline the key is not what core values an organization has, but rather that it has center values. In order to define the center estimations of an organization, it's important to start with self-trustworthiness for real core values that must survive for a long time. An organization ought not change its core values because of market changes; rather, it ought to change markets—if essential—keeping in mind the final goal to stay consistent with its core values.
Vermeulen (1999:44) expresses the view that, despite the position held by an individual in a company, the way she or he reacts to others determines her or his success. This is controlled directly by how emotional messages are dealt with. According to Corporate Leadership Council (1997), Cambria Consulting research indicates that many companies are experiencing a serious leadership deficiency. To fill that gap most companies are looking for individuals with competencies beyond technical skills. Cambria Consulting and Corporate Leadership Council identified the following ten leadership competencies as the most important: Competency % of models featuring competency Drive for results 83% People development 71% Big-picture awareness 64% Team player 62% Flexibility 58% Integrity 58% Learning orientation 54% Strategic thinking 54% Vision and direction 53% Creating a high performance climate 51% The council maintains that all of the above skills are linked to emotional leadership abilities.
Foreign Studies Bodnarchuk (2011) in his study found out that a competency-based recruitment and selection system can yield the company practical benefits, because when systems are linked to competencies, evaluation is based on fairness, effectiveness and validity. Moreover, Bhagwat (2006) mentioned in his study that CSC in India did not have competency analysis framework, thereby having no competencies defined for any role. In the study of Wakou, Keim, & Williams(2003), based on the personal attributes and job competencies generated, they found out that personal attributes and job competencies prior to hiring can guide hiring decisions and initial training content. The job competencies after training can shape content for inservice training. In the identification of providing orientation and training to the employees, Liff (2002) said that the best approach is to identify the competencies required by the organization to successfully achieve the organization’s vision –
1 1.1.1 Team Formation Problem We can define the problem as : Set of experts is to be find for a given particular task so that team formed can per- form the particular task collectively and effectively be covering required skills.Here we have to identify a relevent set of experts for a given task and which is not practi- cally straightforward.There are basically two factors which participate in competence of a team in an enterprise based network- I) Knowledge competence II) Collaboration competence Formal definition of problem: Given an expertise social network G, a set of experts X and a generalized task Tr , the problem of team formation for the generalized task Tr is to find a subset of experts X 1) for every required skill sm , the requisite number of experts ReqT r (sm ) are as- signed to the team; 2) all of the required skills in the given task should be accomplished by the team; 3) the collective intelligence index (CII) of the team, defined as the linear com- bination of the expertise score and trust-based collaboration score of the team, is maximized. 0 (where X0 ⊆X)forTr such that: 1.2 Collective Inelligence Collective intelligence is group of individuals doing things collectively that seem
The researcher operationalizes teacher social skills by selecting its measurement scale items and scale type which involve a series of scaled indicator items in a Likert scale format. In order to determine what skills are important to teachers’ interactions with their students for the research, a distinction need to be drawn between competence and skill as both have an ultimate bearing on performance behavior. Building on the work of McClelland (1973) and other scholars, Boyatzis (1982) defined competencies as the underlying characteristics of an individual causally related to effective or superior performance in a job. This is consistent with the view that competence should be viewed as a function of knowledge, skill, and motivation (Spitzberg, 1983). These definitions suggest that a competency framework is broader than a skill framework as it involves such elements as values, personality, motivations, and knowledge.
This is the area where company has deep understanding and skills. Core Competency of an organization can be identified by studying and analyzing the skill for developing the products and services offered to potential customers. Such skills are difficult to imitate. VRIO framework can be used by managers to identify core competency of a