The purpose of this lab was to explore and understand the scientific method and how to apply it to experimental procedures, as well as developing an understanding the importance of complete and concise presentation of experimental results obtained by statistical data analysis from collected raw findings. These learning objectives were accomplished by testing the emergence times of sponge creatures from their gelatin capsules by asking the question, “How does water temperature effect the time in which the sponge creatures materialize from their casing?”. An experiment was designed to test this using two different water temperatures and twenty four sponge gelatin capsules (1).
The egg we experimented on went through many dramatic changes. In its original state, the circumference was 14 cm, and it was 66.8 grams in mass. However, it was much larger after it was put in the vinegar for 48 hours, the circumference was 17 cm, and the mass was 89.1 grams. This occurred because of osmosis. Since the vinegar had more water molecules than the egg, it was transferring the molecules to the egg to create equilibrium; therefore, the egg became larger. This proves that the egg has a higher solute concentration then the vinegar. However, when the egg was placed in the corn syrup, its masses greatly decreased. The corn syrup has no water molecules, so to create equilibrium, the egg transferred its water molecules to the corn syrup,
After performing the Brine Shrimp Inquiry lab my group found that .5% salinity of 50 mL of water was the ideal salinity for hatching brine shrimp. To figure out what salinity was ideal we tested three different levels of salinity. The first thing we did when we began the lab was choose three different salinities to test. My group choose .5%, 3%, and 5%, next we choose the amount of water that would be in each dish; we decided on 50 mL of water. We then calculated the amount of salt to put in each dish. To do this we created proportions. We calculated that we need to put .25 mL of salt in 50 mL of water to create .5% salinity, 1.5 mL of salt in 50 mL of water to create 3% salinity, and 2.5 mL of salt
In lab 3, fundamentals of chromatography, the purpose was to examine how components of mixtures can be separated by taking advantage of different in physical properties. A huge process in this lab was paper chromatography, which was used to isolate food dyes that are found in different drink mixes. The different chromatograms of FD&C dyes were compared to identify which dyes are present in each of the mixes. Chromatograms where made for the known FD&C and for the three Kool-Aid samples. The retention factor for each dye was calculated. F or each of the Kool-Aid flavors, 2.0 g was weighed out from the packet and 5mL of water was mixed in with them each. mL of 0.1% NaCl solution was added to 100mL of bottled water. The six chromatography strips
Each group was assigned a different percent of sucrose solution out of the four variables; 0% , 5%, 10%, and 15%. After we filled the beaker we then got two potato cores. Once we had the cores we cut the skin off the ends. Following this we then cut the two potato cores into four 2.00 cm potato cores. After they were cut into 2.00 cm each we found the mass. We zeroed out the scale and weighed all four potato cores at once and recorded the mass. We then put those potato cores into the beaker of 75 mL of solution. With the potato cores in the beaker we then put a watch glass over the top of the beaker to minimize the amount of solution that evaporates. We let the potato cores sit in the solution overnight. The next day we then emptied the beaker of the solution by carefully draining the solution, while not letting the potato cores fall out. We then took the potato cores out of the empty beaker and dabbed them lightly with paper towel to get any excess solution off. We did this quickly and following it we then took the mass of all four potato cores again and recorded
Based on the data and the recorded observations, my hypothesis is correct. When a solution is hypotonic, this causes the cell to swell, because there are more water molecules on the inside of the cell. If positive feedback continues, the cell will eventually burst. When a solution is hypertonic, this causes the cell to shrink, because there are more water molecules on the outside of the cell. Over time, the cell will start to function poorly (“Difference between Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic Solutions”). Therefore, the cell needs to maintain its internal environment through osmosis. In a hypotonic solution, osmosis allows water molecules to move from the inside of the cell to the outside, so as to keep the concentrations balanced. In a hypertonic
The experiment shall use several concentrations of sucrose solution and a substance known as Methylene blue. A piece of potato/ carrot shall be placed in a boiling tube and the solution shall be poured into it. This tube shall have Methylene blue added into it. After incubation some of this solution shall be taken out with a pipette and inserted into a separate boiling tube containing the same sucrose solution however this solution shall be known as the pre-incubated solution. The drop shall be watched so as to see if the density of the water and concentration of sucrose has increased or not, displaying the water
The purpose of this experiment is to test for mitochondrial activity by isolating different organelles using the differential centrifugation process. Studying mitochondria is extremely important because they control the death and life of the cell by regulating the apoptotic signals (Frezza et al 2007). Also they are responsible for the metabolic reactions (aerobic respiration) and the production of ATP (Frezza et al 2007). Three hypotheses were formed based on my knowledge. First, it was hypothesized that test tube "A", the control, would not show any red concentration, test tube "B" which contains supernatant II would show the most red concentration and test tube "C" which contains sediment II would only show a little red concentration. The second hypothesis states that the raw corn kernels would have mitochondrial activity while the boiled corn kernels would not. The last hypothesis interprets that the "gunk" and sediment I will both contain starch granules. It was only expected to find mitochondrial activity in Supernatant II. Unfortunately, after performing this experiment, we were not able to support this hypothesis and come up with a conclusion. A possible explanation for why there was no mitochondrial activity observed in the boiled corn kernels might be because increasing the temperature would disintegrate dehydrogenases and thus they wouldn't function as efficient or they
When you put an egg in vinegar, we see that the shell dissolves, but do you ever wonder why? An egg is made mostly out of calcium carbonate which reacts with an ingredient in vinegar, acetic acid. Acetic acid is about 4% of the vinegar and what breaks apart the solid calcium carbonate crystals. The bubbles we see, from the egg, is the carbonate that make carbon dioxide and the other calcium ions float free. This is the equation:
The term fermentation refers to the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat (wikipedia). Sugars are converted to ethyl alcohol when fermentation happens. In this experiment we determined if yeast cells undergo fermentation when placed in a closed flask with no oxygen. Glucose and yeast are mixed together in a closed flask and allowed to incubate for about one hour. Then, tests are performed to determine if the products of aerobic and anaerobic respiration are present in the flasks.The citric acid cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of ATP (Biology). The tests detect the presence of carbon dioxide and ethanol. Carbon dioxide should be present irrespective of the type of respiration taking place, but ethanol is present only if fermentation has occurred. Another factor that can indicate whether fermentation occurred or cellular respiration occurred is the amount of glucose utilized during incubation.Fermentation uses more glucose because the process of fermentation is much less efficient than cellular respiration in terms of energy production per molecule of glucose used. The open flask (control) and the closed
Within the current investigation, the effects of the surface area of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) in combination with Hydrochloric acid (HCl) upon its rate of reaction. CaCO3, commonly referred to as limestone, is an organic substance and is, in a sense, the crystallised “carbonic salt” of the element, calcium2. In addition to being a salt, the pH level of Calcium Carbonate is 9.91, and it is therefore, a basic substance, due to the fact that it is comprised of a pH level higher than 7, which is neutral3.
Abstract — This experiment was conducted to familiarize the students with the procedures regarding distillation—to be more precise, the separation of ethanol from an alcoholic beverage—using a distillation set-up consisting of boiling chips, a Bunsen burner, a condenser, a thermometer and several other materials. In the end, it was discovered that one may actually separate a homogeneous mixture, given that the components of said mixture differ in volatility and that they utilize a complete distillation set-up and follow laboratory safety rules and regulations.
After setting up the column, 2 10-ml of the chosen solvent was obtained and was placed in two separate test tubes. Using a dropper, ~0.5 mL of the food dye was put into the column by dropping it at the side of the column in a circular motion. The chosen solvent was then added just after the green food