C is plotted and fitted to a logarithmic-line to illustrate the saturation effect, shown in Figure 1. Then using equation 12.8 in the lab manual, C/Y is calculated and plotted versus C and fitted to a straight line, shown in Figure 2. From the fitted line, Ymax, which is the maximum number of moles of acetic acid that can be adsorbed on the surface of the charcoal per gram of charcoal, can be calculated from the slope. Then, using Ymax and the value of the y-intercept, K, which is the ratio between the rate constant k1 of the forward reaction (adsorption on the charcoal) and the rate constant k-1 (detachment from the charcoal), can be determined. For calculations, refer to Appendix E. Finally, multiplying Ymax by Avagadro’s number will give the number of AA molecules adsorbed on the surface of one gram of charcoal at saturation.
In the next steps the density of water between 30-40 °C, 40-50 °C and 50-60 °C was measured. Then our results ρ vs T and also density vs temperature values given in the Steam Tables were plotted on the same graph in order to compare. In the second part the density of water was measured by density bottle. The densities obtained from the experiment are 995, 992.5, 991, 990 kg/m3 for the first part and
strained contains carbohydrates (4–5%), lactose (45–50 g/L), proteins (6–8 g/L), lipids (4–5 g/L) and mineral salts (8–10% of dried extract). Mineral salts include NaCl and KCl (>50%) as well as calcium salts (among others). The water content of cheese whey is quite high, constituting as much as 93.12 grams out of 100 g . When dewatered, however, solids are left. 2.2.7 Corn syrup.
Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC. When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was 2.006 grams. The experiment yield is 1.589g, which is a 80.3% yield.
Kaur,1985) which give sigmoid shape with (n-hexane, n-heptane and n-decane), i.e. show both negative and positive values at low and high mole fraction range. This can be explained as consequence of two opposing effects, the disruption of H-bonded alcohol aggregates by alkane molecules contribute negative VE whereas change in free volume and interstitial accommodation of smaller alkane molecules into the alkanol structure give negative contribution. The latter effect gets stoically hindered in 4-methylpentan-2-ol due to positive contribution due and is dominated by the positive contribute due to disruption of H-bonds. Self association due to H-bonds also become weaker due to steric hindrance to H-bond formation in 4-methylpentan-2-ol as compared to Hexan-1-ol which cause more positive VE values for 4-methylpentan-2-ol.
The literature melting point range of methyl trans-cinnamate is ~34-38oC (Aldrich).4 The obtained melting point of the crude was 34.5-35.5oC, which is a highly narrow range of less than 1oC difference and it also falls within the expected melting point range. Hence, the crystal lattice structure of the product is largely intact, requiring an even amount of thermal energy to melt the sample. The experimental melting point range indicates the crude product is relatively pure with minimal impurities. The percent yield was satisfactory, having a 68% yield. To optimize this yield, consider the steps in how the reagents are introduced to the reaction mixture in terms.
Abstract In this experiment, the reaction kinetics of the hydrolysis of t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, was studied. The experiment was to determine the rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effects of solvent composition on the rate of reaction. A 50/50 V/V isopropanol/water solvent mixture was prepared and 1cm3 of (CH3)3CCl was added. At specific instances, aliquots of the reaction mixture were withdrawn and quenched with acetone. In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator.
Results and Discussion The effects of ultrasound, electric field strength, the time of applying the field and sonication time on a number of E. coli, and energy consumption of the process in mint distillate were investigated. As shown in Table (), the full quadratic model for the data had a significant effect on the reduction of E. coli in the samples of mint distillate. The adjusted determination coefficient, standard error and coefficient of variation (C.V) of the model were equal to 0.9984, 0.049 and 2.39, respectively. According to ANOVA (Table 1-4), with the exception of the electric field strength coefficient* sonication time and the time of applying the electric field * sonication time, other coefficients of the variables in the model
ΔH= q Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by 1 C (or 1 K).1 Specific heat of water is equal to 4.18 J/ g℃.1 In order to determine the specific heat capacity of metal, it is necessary to know mass and change in temperature, specific heat of water, also change in temperature and mass of metal used: q_(H_2 O)=〖S.H.〗_(H_2 O) × m_(H_2 O) × ∆t_(H_2 O)= -〖S.H.〗_M × m_M ×
High fructose corn syrup is basically a corn syrup in which enzymes have been additional to alteration selected of the glucose to fructose and creation the product syrup sweeter than corn syrup. In this report I will cover basic ideas and information related to high fructose corn syrup, physical and chemical properties of HFCS. There are many manufacturer process, that used corn syrup as an raw material, and HFCS used in many food stuffs for developing better taste, odor and flavor. In the middle section of this report I will show the process flow diagram of the process that uses starch as an raw material for the production of HFCS. At the end of this report I will cover up, how environment affected due to the production of HFCS, and what are