As Malmkjaer says “Stylistics is the study of style in spoken and written text. By style is meant a consistent occurrence in the text of certain items and structures, or types of items and structures, among those offered by the language as a whole.” (Malmkjaer, 2004, p.510) 1.4.2.Using corpus for Stylistics: Corpus is a group of collective data for specific author which helps in making research and scholarship. Corpus must be authentic, large, written and machine- readable. Malmkjaer defines corpus as “ As its most general, a corpus may be defined as a body or collection of linguistic data for use in scholarship and research. Since early 1960s, interest has increasingly focused on computer corpora or machine-readable corpora.” (Malkjaer, 2004, p.84) In other words, corpus is the base of the stylistic analysis as this analysis needs data, so to make a stylistic analysis to a specific word, one has to create a corpus(data) for this specific literary work and then start working on it.
The study starts off by pointing out two opposing viewpoints on the practicality of CLT, and claiming that the emerging trouble in implementing the approach does not totally nullify its usefulness. Also, a concise literature review on the basic tenets of CLT, as coined by other scholars working on the same field, was provided and the meaning of this approach in language teaching was also addressed. Then, it reports the definition and appraisal of CLT by some teachers, and the challenges they face in their effort of employing the key values of
That is to say, the questionnaire that was effectively utilized consists of both open and closed-ended feedbacks. Owing to the quantitative and qualitative nature of the data that was garnered, both techniques were relied upon in the analysis as postulated by Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2007). This strategy is opted for principally in the natural sciences and heavily reliant on information that can quantitatively be accounted for. Babbie (2010) opined that surveys, questionnaires, tests of personality, and standardized research instruments are undoubtedly hypothetical scenarios of apparatuses effectively utilized within the quantitative approach perspective. Conversely, Crotty (1998) posited that qualitative approach to research accentuates on systematic protocols and methods, where subjective parameters of the researcher are crafted into the fact findings and its concluding part.
Corpus Stylistics is a new direction at the interface between the fields of stylistics and corpus linguistics, namely the use of a corpus methodology to investigate stylistic categories in different text types or in individual texts. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of stylistic phenomena rely on the evidence of language usage as collected and analyzed in corpora. Corpus linguistics provides a more objective view of language. John Sinclair (1998) pointed out that this is because speakers do not have access to the subliminal patterns which run through a language. As mentioned in a study by the Siebold University of Nagasaki "A corpus-based analysis can investigate almost any language patterns, lexical, structural, lexico-grammatical, discourse, phonological, morphological, often with very specific tools such as discovering male versus female usage of tag questions, children's acquisition of irregular past participles, or counterfactual statement error patterns of Japanese students.
Vis (2012: 169; 192) argues that the combination of QCA and other methods can be profitable of the researcher. Blatter & Haverland (2012: 231) suggest that QCA when being combined with another method is a great for a cross-case analysis and for example a case study could be used for the case analysis. It however should be noted that among all described methods only the QCA can account for causal
According to Katz and Postal, linguistics is all about studying the objects that make up language. These include sentences, words, grammar, and all other objects that make up language. The two scholars move away from Chomsky’s idea that linguistics is a psychological concept that can only be understood if studied from this perspective. Further Katz and Postal present the argument that Chomsky’s idea of conceptualism is incoherent and is not suitable as a description of linguistics. This is because language is all about abstract objects and the mental approach taken by Chomsky is wrong.
Critical linguists perceive some of the research done within more orthodox framework of sociolinguistics and pragmatics as trying to correlate context modalities with an autonomous linguistic system. Critical Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis have in turn a strikingly divergent outlook on the matter. Their advocates adhere to the view that every discourse is structured by dominance, historically produced and interpreted, and thus situated in time and space. They also note that dominance structures are legitimated by ideologies of powerful groups. As Ruth Wodak suggests “[…] the complex approach advocated by proponents of CL and CDA makes it possible to analyse pressures from above and possibilities of resistance to unequal power relationships that appear as societal conventions (Wodak and Meyer, eds.
DQ #2: What are the major advantages and challenges to using a qualitative approach in social science research? Apply these advantages and challenges to your topic of interest. Answer Data collection methods in Social Science research may be grouped into three main categories namely: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed research. The research method is basic to the success of any research activity and is essential to maintaining the integrity of research. Krishnamurthi, Cabrera, and Karlovsky, (2004) argue that the selection of the appropriate data collection instruments and their correct use help to reduce or eliminate the likelihood of errors.
1. Introduction 1.1 A Brief Introduction to the Contrastive Study Since all human languages are tools of conveying people’s thought and means of communication, they are all have universals and also are within a same theoretical system. It would be helpful to study a new language if you know some same mechanisms or structures among all languages. And the comparative study is the best way to search for universals among these languages. However, due to the differences also exist between languages, compared with a comparative study; the contrastive study is more effective and comprehensive.
2- Literature Review : Michael Halliday (1985) has argued that language is a system for making meanings. It is a semantic system. He found that linguists have become so interested in the code that they forgot that language is a social phenomenon. It involves people, places, times, events, and social meanings. Language is a social expression of human interactions and written communication provides a record of these public events.