Around a 20 cm to 30 cm (8" to 12") cushion of ballast is typically given underneath the sleepers to transfer the load equitably and to give the essential flexibility to the track. The diverse materials used to build sleepers are wood (31%), cast iron (42%), and steel (27%). Experience has demonstrated that cast iron sleepers are not capable for high-density routes. Solid concrete sleepers have been created by Indian Railways and are proposed to be continuously laid on gathering on group A and B routes which are high speed lines of 160 km/h and 130 km/h on broad gauge routes. Sleepers are laid to different sleeper densities differing from (M + 7) to (M + 4) or 1540 for each km to 1310 for each km relying on the weight and volume of movement.
The country has an extensive network of railways covering multitude of tourist destinations. It runs train services all over the country which cater to different type of travellers. Railway is a very important driver of tourism in any country and even more so one as large as India with weak road & hotel infrastructure. Being the tourism arm of Indian Railways IRCTC makes an important contribution to overall growth of tourism in the country. It is also focusing on providing value for money services to middle end domestic customers by its range of tour
India is an agricultural country. About seventy percent of the population depends on agriculture. One-third of our National income comes from agriculture. India’s economy is based on agriculture. The development of agriculture has much to do with the economic welfare of the country.
INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY History of Indian automobile industry shows that it has grown with leaps and bounds since 1898, a time when a car had touched the Indian streets for the first time. But now India is in verge to rewrite history in different conditions as it is home to 40 million passenger vehicles and Indian manufactured cars and other automobile products are touching other nation roads. Presently Indian automobile industry is regarded as largest and second fastest growing industry after China in the world with annual production of over 3.9 million units. Its passenger cars and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry ranked sixth largest in the world. One of the best things happen for the Indian automobile market in the recent years was its improvement in the export sector.
In accordance with its corporate vision of being ‘The Energy of India’, Indian Oil has been successfully meeting the energy demands of India for more than five decades. Indian Oil's business interests overlap the entire hydrocarbon, value-chain, including refining, pipeline transportation, and marketing of petroleum products, exploration and production of crude oil, natural gas and petrochemicals. The Indian Oil Group of companies owns and operates ten of India's 20 refineries with a combined refining capacity of 60.2 million metric tonnes per annum. These include two refineries of subsidiary Chennai Petroleum Corporation. The corporation's cross–country network of crude oil and product pipelines, spanning over 10,000 km and the largest in the country, meets the vital energy needs of the consumers in an efficient, economical and environment–friendly manner.
India shares borders with Afganistan,Bangladesh,Bhutan,china,Burma,Nepal and Pakistan by land and Indonesia ,Maldives,Thailand,srilankha by sea, During last five years the exports of India have increased at an annualized rate of 6.6% ,from $210B in 2008 to $290B in 2013.The most recent exports are led by Refined petroleum which represents 19.6% of the total exports of India ,followed by Packaged medicaments, which account for 4.07%. The product space is a network connecting products that are likely to be co-exported and can be used to predict the evolution of a country’s export structure. The economy of India has an ECONOMIC complexity Index (ECI) of 0.262 making it the 50th most complex country. India exports 406 products with revealed comparative advantage. Below is the demonstration of India’s export market.
In India, the railways provide the principal mode of transportation for freight and passengers. The Indian Railways have been a good integrating force for more than 150 years. The railways are the most convenient mode of transport for long distances and are most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods like iron ore, iron and steel, heavy machinery, minerals, etc. Railways carry raw materials from the mines and the quarries and other interior areas of the country to the industrial centers. They link up the various regions of the economy and increase the occupational mobility of people.
INTRODUCTION India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Various sectors contribute to the development of Indian economy. The contribution of service sector to gross domestic product (GDP) is higher than any other sector. Next to service sector manufacturing sector contributes more to GDP followed by agricultural sector. In the aspect of employment, next to agricultural sector, manufacturing sector gives more employment to people.
The trains are usually of four and six coaches, but due to increase in the number of passengers, eight-coach trains are added on the Yellow Line (Jahangirpuri to HUDA city centre) and Blue line (Dwarka Sector-21 to Noida City Centre/Vaishali). Yellow line being the first one with eight coach trains. The power output is supplied by 25-kilovolt, 50-hertzalternating current through overhead catenary. The metro has an average daily ridership of 2.4 million commuters, and, as of August 2010, had already carried over 1.25 billion commuters since its inception. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation has been certified by the United Nations as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to get "carbon credits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions" and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes every
SUMMER PROJECT TOPIC-MANAGING DIVERSITY IN TOURISM INDUSTRY 1. INTRODUCTION- As we all know that the tourism industry is growing rapidly in India. The travel and tourism industry has blessed the country. India gets a third rank among the world for its tourism. Our India is known as heritage country, so by this name our country has gain the popular rank among the tourist.