World Bank (1997) reveals solid evidence on the causes and consequences of corruption. For instance, investment, economic growth, environmental and social welfare. However, as long as corruption exists in many countries, there is a need for anti-corruption policies, yet Combating corruption need a proper understanding of the causes and consequences. This study aims at assessing the causes and the consequences of corruption, the case of selected institutions in Juba, South Sudan. These are; South Sudan Nationality Police service (SSNPS); Directorate of Nationality, Passports and Immigration (DNPI); South Sudan Customs Service (SSCS); Ministry of Finance, and Economic Planning (MoFEP); Judiciary of South Sudan (JOSS); South Sudan’s Legislative Assembly (SSLA); and South Sudan Anti – Corruption Commission (SSACC).
1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY A primary reason for concern regarding ethics in local government is that the lack of it has the ability to reduce public trust and confidence in the integrity and impartiality of both elected public officials and government itself. In this respect, the existence of unethical conduct can be as damaging as actual unethical conduct. Once, in discussing his code of conduct, President J.F. Kennedy (in Frier 1969:3-4) remarked that even though a technical conflict of interest may not exist, it is desirable to avoid the appearance of such a conflict from a public confidence point of view.
Popular biases that exist are shaped by surroundings and socializations that one has been raised in, as discussed earlier. For example, a highly white area may view their counterparts as hostile, dangerous, criminal and concentrated in certain areas in which all crime occurs, and this may result in over policing (Sampson and Raudenbush 2004). This forces typical profiling and generalizations of crime on the basis of no real harm or threat. However, police are an institution that is present to protect “the people”, although “the people” has been subjectively shifted to support the popular belief or ideal while maintaining order (Sampson and Raudenbush 2004). According to a study on views of racism and unjust treatment, the majority of white individuals do not see racism as apart of law enforcement practices and that racism is not an issue within (Pew Research Center’s Social and Demographic Trends Project 2016) .
The article appeared on the IOL website and is titled, ‘treat Zuma equally before law or else.’ The article was written by Eusebius McKaiser, a columnist for the website. The article deals with the issue of the unconstitutional actions of President Jacob Zuma. The author remarks on how president Zuma has failed in following the constitutional values of South Africa, by being charged for corruption in 2009. The author also highlights arguments for and against the prosecution of Jacob Zuma. The author explains in detail the process of prosecution and the success the National Prosecuting Authority, the authority tasked with criminal prosecutions in South Africa, will achieve in prosecuting Jacob Zuma of corruption charges.
Not only is Coetzee illustrating the rationalizing of the horrors inflicted on some innocent whites for the brutality of the apartheid era on blacks, but also by referring to another place and time, Lucy alludes to the Truth Reconciliation Committee whereby atrocities committed on victims would be dealt with in a publicized manner. However it does not seem as though she is expressing a yearning for South Africa to go back in time, rather Lucy is expressing regret over the politics of ‘insincere confession’ . And thus, by submitting to the situation Lucy demonstrates ‘a clear manifestation of a desire to walk towards peace, even if there is a high price to pay for it’ . Additionally Lucy’s stoic attitude opens a discussion on sins and expiation as David disagrees with Lucy’s decision. He questions her ‘do you hope that you can expiate the crimes of the past by suffering in the present?’ Thus demonstrating that this situation has forced David to ponder over the impact and importance that history has.
6. Barriers of trade in Africa A. Tariff Barriers Tariffs are the main limitations to trade in Africa. Countries hold various customs and border tariffs that make trade between countries which facilitates strain in the exchange of commodities between countries. However it is imperative to note that, regional cooperation amongst states in Africa has degraded the barrier and tariff systems such as embargos on commodities.
Civil society has become one of the most effective alliance of the states to curb corruption in many countries . Civil society will ensure that there will be a high transparency in a democratic states. Corruption can happen either in a democratic states or in a communist states. This practice are totally against the principle of democracy which is to be fair, and equal. As a pressure group, civil society will expose the corrupt conduct of public officials and lobby for good governance reform.
Firstly, it was identified that performing anthropological study on corruption is a peculiar, but complex task, because people do not like to confess their faults, especially on subjects which might lead to legal responsibility and anthropologists themselves do not want to shame or put under risks their respondents or own career perspectives. This explains why accounts on anthropological roots of corruption are not numerous. On the example of Post-Soviet health care, it was identified that sometimes people do not consider corrupt actions as bribery. Gifts and extra-payment for doctors might be perceived as a crime from governmental perspective, but as a gratitude and fair payment for one’s professionalism and labor. Secondly, on the example of Indian community, it was identified that in some cultures people feel that they have a moral obligation to help relatives and friends, even if this requires illegal actions.
Marthoz (2013) further advocates on the continued failure of the ANC to deliver its promises to the mass which affects its foreign policy and by this contradiction, the ANC favours a populist and anti-imperialist system on the other side it supports a pragmatist and realistic foreign policy. Another factor that decides South Africa`s realist foreign policy is the fact that the African continent constitutes countries of armed conflict, arbitrary rule, migration, illegal trade and transnational crime which inescapably pervade
The second approach is conducted by inferential analysis, which is examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The effect of local transparency on corruption prevention is examined, and we also examine public trusts and public awareness with quasi-moderation approach. This approach based on previous literature and the phenomenon why high local transparency and large internet user, but the corruption continues in Indonesia. Therefore, the effect of transparency on the prevention of corruption is questioned. We suggest that there are other factors that influence the prevention of corruption, so we include public trust and public awareness into the