Cosmogony In Ancient Mesopotamia

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Cosmogony is concerned with the origin of the universe. Eschatology is concerned with death, judgement and the afterlife. There exists a plurality of diverse cosmogonies and eschatology’s within the different religions of the world. The variations in myth, symbol and ritual contained in these religions often reflect differences in the environment, the social order, and the economy of the different civilizations to which they belong. This essay seeks to explore the different cosmogonies and eschatology’s of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Ancient Greece and how the myth, symbol and ritual contained in them are directly or indirectly related to the political and physical environment. When considering religions of the Ancient World it is evident that there…show more content…
The Epic of Creation speaks of how intermingled elements were personified as water deities: Apsu, the sweet waters; Ti’amat, the sea. The myth speaks of change from chaos to cosmic order but also emphasises that because chaotic elements were included in the creation, the return of chaos would be a perennial threat. This instability is represented by the Tigras and Euphrates Rivers which frequently caused destructive floods that had catastrophic effects of the villages and cities, killing both people and livestock. The two wild rivers had a strong influence on the relationship between symbol, myth ritual and the environment. Furthermore, unlike Egypt which was protected from outside invasion by its natural barriers, Mesopotamia was a vast open region and subject to constant invasion by outside forces. This further supports the element of chaos and instability present in the cosmogonies. The natural environment of Egypt on the other hand, differs greatly from Mesopotamia. The Nile River overflowed its banks annually, depositing rich natural fertilizing elements that allowed the agricultural land to flourish. The yearly flooding of the Nile in Egypt is predictable, unlike the Tigras and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia. In Ancient Egyptian religion, there exists gods of the earth, many gods of the sun…show more content…
Divine Kingship is the Ancient Egyptian belief that the Pharaoh was not only the King (political ruler) but also a god. The Pharaoh was associated with Horus, son of Re the sun god. Later it was believed that at death he became Osiris, and would help the Egyptians in their afterlife. Due to these beliefs, the Pharaoh held an immense amount of power and affluence. In addition, the priests in Ancient Egypt were also very powerful. When things in the country were going well the priests and pharaohs would be praised. But when things in the country were not going well, the people believed the pharaoh and the priest were to
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