Cosmopolitanism Research Paper

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UNIVERSAL HISTORY
Achieving Perfection within the Horizon of Cosmopolitanism

by Priyasha Kushwaha (2012CH10106)

ABSTRACT
“Universal history”, as a Kantian concept, arises from the fusion of philosophy with history. This treatise explores Kant’s essay, “Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View”. Analysis of this essay leads to a hope that history, when studied in its entirety, reveals Nature’s intentions for man; and all human actions confirm to Nature’s intention of achieving perfection within the horizon of cosmopolitanism.

INTRODUCTION
Asserting universal meaning to the entirety of human history, instead of being limited to one historical phenomenon is known as “universal history”. Historical events, when studied
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As Kant proposes in his Fifth Thesis, this social state can thrive only when freedom of individual is consistent with that of society. This freedom of will would lead to antagonism and mutual opposition, which would determine the exact limitations to the freedom, so that individual freedom does not oppose social freedom. This perfectly just civic constitution would therefore combine the utmost possible freedom along with mutually accepted rigorous boundaries of this freedom. However, according to Kant’s Sixth…show more content…
Cosmopolitanism as history’s final end becomes figured as precisely what must be desired, worked toward, and ultimately hoped for in order for the development of humanity to attain its perfection.

When natural histories of all generations, civic constitutions, laws, relations with other states, development of art and science are added, they seem capable of justifying the actions of human species and confirming them to the fact that Nature has an underlying purpose for everything it creates. Thus, the “idea” of universal history may not be concrete and it may not be able to explain all the complex internal workings planned by Nature, but it may still serve as a guiding thread.
Nature does not reveal its plan explicitly. However, studies made throughout the generations suggest a guiding thread which leads to the conclusion that Nature has planned a great revolution for man- the ultimate end being the attainment of a
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